Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Joining Air War College (AWC) will remain one of my memorable things to have happened in my life because it marked the transition from being just a leader to being a Strategic Leader. In the military, once enlisted as an officer you assume leadership right from the beginning but through experience and training at different levels, officers continue to develop their leadership skills as well. As we started Joint Strategic Leadership Modules in AWC, we learned that a strategic leader combines the day to day operations and the long term goals to grow an organization. Hence, strategic leadership calls for an individual to have the ability to influence subordinates through motivation, persuasion and other leadership traits in acquiring/achieving an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. We also learned that strategic leadership involves development and enhancement of new skills and abilities that will enable a leader face the new strategic environment which is volatile, uncertain, complex, and amb iguous (VUCA). Whereas my current leadership posture is more of direct leadership where missions and goals are rather clear, joining AWC meant the beginning for transformation into strategic leadership where working with peers will be paramount as opposed to command. Therefore, this essay endeavors to state my goals and objectives for this academic year while in AWC, where I will also be able to evaluate my current leadership ability at strategic level and identify any shortcomings thereon, assess waysShow MoreRelatedJoint Professional Military Education Phase II4456 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesUSA Joint Forces Staff College Joint and Combined Warfighting School Class #15-03 17 August 2015 Faculty Advisor: CDR Michael Bissell, USN Seminar #7 A submission to the Faculty of the Joint and Combined Warfighting School in partial satisfaction of the requirements for Joint Professional Military Education Phase II. The contents of this submission reflect our writing teamÃ¢â¬â¢s original views and are not necessarily endorsed by the Joint Forces Staff College or the Department of Defense
Monday, December 16, 2019
Functional Area Interrelationships October 29, 2012 BUS/475 University of Phoenix Abstract Huffman Trucking is a trucking company that was established in 1936. Throughout this paper, we will discuss the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and vision statement. It will also identify the type of organizational structure and how each of those roles supports the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. We will write a custom essay sample on Bus 475 Week 3 Learning Team: Functional Area Interrelationships or any similar topic only for you Order Now The collaboration process among the functional areas must also be established to support the goals. Finally, the stakeholders will be reviewed and how the company plans to protect them and how their communication is vital to the success of Huffman Trucking. Ã¢â¬Å"Huffman Trucking started in 1936 in Cleveland, OH. By 1945, the company had increased in size to 16 tractors and 36 trailers. Ã¢â¬ (Virtual Organization) Today Huffman trucking is one of the largest trucking companies in the United States. The company has four locations across the U. S. ; Cleveland, OH, Los Angeles, CA, St. Louis, MO, and Bayonne, NJ. The company has created a core foundation to continue to grow the company and sustain financial stability. Since the inception of the organization in 1936, Huffman trucking has grown their fleet of tractor-trailers from one to over 800 tractors, 2,100 45 foot trailers, and 260 roll on/ roll off units. Huffman trucking also employees 925 drivers and 425 technical support staff members, which is based from the increase in business that they have seen over the years from their acquisitions of five other freight companies. The mission of Huffman trucking is Ã¢â¬Å"to be a profitable, growing, adaptive company in an intensively competitive logistical services business environmentÃ¢â¬ . Huffman Trucking according to the mission statement wants to be a competitive company within the logistics industry, and they also want to maintain the growth and profitability that they have experienced over the years. The vision statement of Huffman Trucking is Ã¢â¬Å"to be a model company to our stockholders, employees, customers, and all stakeholdersÃ¢â¬ . Through the vision statement that Huffman Trucking has put into place at their organization they want to be a company that does right by all the people that are investors in the company, as well as, the employees and customers that are also valued by the organization. In analyzing the mission and vision statements of the company, Huffman Trucking existence is to maintain their market share in the logistics industry by treating the customer, employees, stock, and stakeholders with the upmost respect and consideration. The reason that Huffman Trucking uses the business structure that they have is to maintain the solid structure of the employment, and maintain the growth of the business in the industry of logistics. Huffman Trucking is a company that prides themselves on the idea that taking care of the employees will help the employees will take care of the customers, and the revenues from the customers will help the business and the stock and stakeholders maintain their edge. Huffman Trucking is a leader in the industry of logistics, and is one of the larger corporations that are in operation. The contracts that Huffman Trucking has are strong stable contracts that will help the vision and mission of the company to be successful in the completion and achievement of the goals that they set for the organization. Huffman Trucking has a strong foundation and the future of the organization is solid with the contracts that are in place from years to come. The services that Huffman Trucking offers to its customers are services that can help the growth of the business, and to maintain the competitive edge that Huffman Trucking has over its competition. Huffman Trucking is a privately held United States based company. Huffman TruckingÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission Statement is Ã¢â¬Å"to be a profitable, growing, adaptive company in an intensively competitive logistical services business environmentÃ¢â¬ (Huffman Trucking, 2012). HuffmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Trucking Vision Statement is Ã¢â¬Å"to be a model company to our stockholders, employees, customers and all stakeholdersÃ¢â¬ (Huffman Trucking, 2012). Huffman trucking has implemented the following steps of the collaboration process that must be employed to achieve organizational goals. The action plan to implement the collaboration process is to create an important objective, build, sustain, or enhance a core competence or competitive advantage, important new market opportunities as well as mitigate significant risk to the trucking business. Facilitating the close cross-company by merger and acquisition strategies play a part in Huffman trucking. Expanding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s geographic coverage and independently developing whatever resources and know-how were needed to be successful was imperative. Huffman Trucking has facilities in four major cities in the United States, Cleveland, OH, Los Angeles, CA, St. Louis, MO, and Bayonne, NJ. In order for Huffman Trucking to be a successful business there had to be several things put into place. The mission of the company is to be a profitable, growing, adaptive company in an intensively competitive logistical services business environment. The vision of Huffman Trucking is to be a model company to our stockholders, employees, customers and all stakeholders. In order for Huffman Trucking to be able to achieve the mission and reach the vision for the company there had to be the use of collaborations within. Such collaborations would include lateral and vertical collaborations. Lateral collaboration is where a group of people with the same ranking work together to accomplish a task. An example of lateral collaboration would be if two or more of the floor employees work together to try and come up with a way to increase production. A vertical collaboration would occur when a person of higher rank works with a person of lower rank to accomplish a goal. The CEO of the company working with a floor shift manager to try to increase production would be an example of vertical collaboration. Looking on the service request page, there has been many requests for service made by different people. One request that was made was made by the CIO for a Windows server upgrade for all the network locations. The expected goal of this server upgrade is to provide a migration path from the current network to one running Windows Server 2008. An action plan will be put together in order to accomplish this goal. Vertical collaboration will be used as the CIO works together with the IT department in order to accomplish the task of upgrading the server. They will work together to make sure that the server upgrade allows Huffman Trucking to do everything that it needs to be successful such as the right domain model and network dministration for all sites. An action plan will then be put into effect for lateral collaboration. This will allow the front line staff to develop ways that the upgraded server can help them. Examples of that would be that Administrative control of domain controllers can be decentralized if needed and allows the drivers to have access to at least one computer at each site. Huffman Trucking takes great pride in their company not only for their employees and customers but also for their stakeholders. They have developed a mission statement for their stakeholders; Ã¢â¬Å"We will maintain continuous awareness of our stakeholders and apply the test of reasonableness to assure our business practices are commensurate with stakeholder expectations. Ã¢â¬ (Virtual Organization) By identify awareness to the stakeholders, they will want to continue to invest in Huffman Trucking. Some of the stakeholders include; President/CEO, VP of Transportation, VP of Equipment, VP of Real Estate, VP of Terminal Operations, VP of Sales, Shareholders and all employees. The collaborative interaction between the Huffman Trucking Executive Management is critical to the success of the business. They are the making the deciding factors for each category that they are over. At the end of the day, each VP relies on another VP in order to proceed with their decisions. The management team must work together in order to ensure that Huffman Trucking and the Stakeholders are happy and successful. At the end of the day, if the stakeholders do no collaborate together all of them will lose out. Huffman Trucking has created a company that continues to grow and build upon their success year after year. By staying true to their mission and vision statement the company will be able to open up more locations in the United States. Huffman trucking has a clear strategic plan that allows them to have a strong internal and vertical collaboration. By keeping their focus and foundation alive to their shareholders, stakeholders, employees, and customers Huffman Trucking will continue to be a leading trucking company. References Virtual Organization Portal. (2012) Huffman Trucking. Retrieved on October 29, 2012 from http://ecampus. phoenix. edu How to cite Bus 475 Week 3 Learning Team: Functional Area Interrelationships, Essays
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Report on Information System Project Management for information systems? Answer: Five key lessons learned from the case study The five top lessons learned from this case study are as follows: Top 500 General Electric executives from Boca Raton, Florida, Welch had brought an innovative thought of turning GE to a famous Internet company. Previously GE had taken several initiatives including globalization for the exceptional rise in profit for the last two decades. The focus of that effort was to provide product plus services for the customers (Schwalbe, 2015). From this case study, it is evident that The Internet is permanently going to change the overall business structure, which includes every relationship between the suppliers, customers, and markets. Within six months of the use of Internet for the purchasing purpose, the GE Lighting had decreased their cycle of purchasing from 14 days to 7 days. The online system of GE allows their customers to download the product information, to verify about the product specification, for tracking the shipment, and to return commodities (Fitzsimmons Fitzsimmons, 2013). A web connection to customer's GE equipment known as iCenter allows collecting the data regarding the equipment provided by GE to their potential clients. The Power system of GE uses the Web for monitoring any GE turbine and which can improve the performance of the turbine. Earlier the GE appliances were sold through small and large retailers in a traditional manner but with the increasing use of Internet the previous model were destroyed, and now machines are sold on auction sites, and big retails. Relationship of GE case studies with other case studies Common Lessons: The general electric is using The Internet and upcoming technologies for changing the overall business infrastructure of their company. New Lessons: The customers of GE use iCenter, which collects the data regarding the equipment, and presents that information to their potential clients. The GE uses the Internet facilities for selling their appliances in big retails and auction sites (Raymond Bergeron, 2015). Case Study of Rand McNally Five key lessons learned from the case study The five top lessons drawn from this case study are: Rand McNally produces many geographical materials and travel outlining software and with the development of the digital economy, the computer-oriented products and use of Internet came into account. Rand McNally faced many problems while modernizing itself with the use of online maps since the senior management was concerned about the fact that if they would introduce online maps, then the sale of traditional paper maps might have been affected (Marchewka, 2014). The management of the company prepared some plans including the availability of Rand McNally website for travelers, up gradation of mapping products for fast growing Internet environment, linkage of company's website with various services available on the net, introducing of mortar and bricks stock business. Finally, the management plan includes that the enterprise needs to be a business-to-consumer company. For achieving these management plans, the company needs to focus on the immediate requirement of information regarding the travel conditions and recommendations proposed during the meetings. The Web site alone is not able to fulfill the requirement of the travelers for planning any trip. The travelers also need to have a continuous Internet access with them. The travels require road status updates, specified driving instructions, online road maps, and for that reason, they need to have a wireless technology. For the inexperienced Internet users, the website needs to have a simple network. Profitability plays a vital role for both investors and management related to this company (Olson, 2014). MapQuest was the chief competitor of Rand McNally in the field of online communication. For getting the leadership in the digital age, Rand McNally tried to introduce wireless travel services in their company. From the case study, it is evident that MapQuest also had some weaknesses where Rand McNally became successful. The maps of Rand McNally were appropriate than that of MapQuest. The driving instructions were vastly detailed in MapQuest, and they were not timely upgraded. Moreover, the route selection in MapQuest was not optimal. For competing with the MapQuest, the management of Rand McNally decided to develop an auto club, which is same as American Automobile Association (AAA). The planning of this auto club was to provide a network for reconstruction shops and to provide necessary roadside services to the travelers. Creating of linkage for the users with the help of car navigation structures, Internet-enabled cell phones, and various wireless gadgets were the chief concern of Rand McNally management. Rand McNally also introduced Global Positioning System for the customers to maintain the track of their current position. All these facilities provided by RandMcNally.com attracted many visitors and made it a strong competitor of MapQuest (Schwalbe, 2015). Relationship of Rand McNally Case Study with other Case Studies Common Lessons:Rand McNally is using the Internet facilities and some innovative technologies for bringing change in their business infrastructure. New Lessons: Rand McNally primarily faced several problems during their introduction to the use of online maps. However, later on, they tried to bring a relationship with wireless technology and their manufactured products. They introduced GPS services, car navigation services, Internet-based cell phones, and many wireless gadgets for overcoming the problems faced earlier. Case Study of Boo.com The five top lessons learned from this case study are: com was using the Internet services for creating online shops, which offered stylish, high quality sportswear that can be bought from anywhere. Boo.com became the initial public offering of stock and after six months of its website launching, it was bankrupted, which led to the loss of $185 million for the shoppers. The business model of Boo.com is different from other Internet organizations, and they focus on full retail price as compared to discount. The Boo.com website offered their customers with leading site engine for searching various types of clothes of the choices and allowed to view products from 360-degree angles. This site is highlighted with a universal sizing structure depending on the size variations among countries and brands. They deployed a telephone based customer care service also offered loyalty points for every purchase that could serve as discounts for future purchases (Kerzner, 2013). com allowed free home delivery within a week, and they took free returns by the unsatisfied consumers. Their website was available in seven different languages including British and American English, and they accepted local currencies from 18 different countries. In this way, they tried to revolutionize their shopping techniques. With the increasing technical development, Boo.com decided to launch satellite offices in Amsterdam, Paris, Munich, and New York. Different people were hired for taking orders on an online basis. Boo.com seemed to be multinational of the 1950s rather than an Internet start-up. The website of Boo.com was ultimately launched in November, and their proposed marketing assault was not realized at the end. The actual advertising campaign was not up to the mark and resulted in disappointment among the potential consumers. Their website was comprised of many critical errors, which was resulting in freezing of the customer's computers. Boo.com was not compatible with the users of Macintosh computers. The navigation of Boo.com site was very much slow for the users having low-speed Internet connections since the interactive features, and attractive graphics took a very long time for downloading. The unsatisfied customers even jammed the client help line of Boo.com. Finally, a website named as Fashionmall.com acquired maximum part of Boo.com such as web address, online content, brand name, and materials of advertising. Their chief concern was to prepare the Boo name into a great existing website for clothing. The new site is acting as a portal with no inventory. The designing of this site is less flashy and graphics-comprehensive with the help of which the consumers can smoothly browse the site with ease. Boo focuses on directing their customers to this new structured site for selling the merchandise for their clients rather than having orders and shipping products. Relationship of Boo.com Case Study with other Case Studies Common Lessons:For better maintenance of Boo.com website, they use the latest models for designing their website and also availing the Internet facilities. New Lessons-Boo offered their customers with best site engine comprised of various featured, but suddenly that was bankrupted by some unauthorized access. They allowed free home delivery facilities and accepted the returns from the unsatisfied customers through their website. They provided sites in seven different languages and accepted local currencies of 18 different countries.The drawbacks of its web site comprised of freezing of the customer's computers, incompatibility of the site for Macintosh computer users. For overcoming such problems, some of the parts of Boo.com is acquired by a website known as Fashionmall.com, which worked as a portal without any inventory. Thus, Boo focuses on this latest structured site for selling their products in an innovative way(Braglia Frosolini, 2014). Case Studies in Chapter 1 The main idea of the opening vignette: With the usage of Internet almost every enterprises and organization can transform their provided services as a digital mode of services. Most personal case study and reason for it: The most personal case study is "possible adoption of emerging technologies in businesses". The reason is that it provides interconnection through the Internet routers, provides improved decision-making and deep learning with the use of various innovative and emerging models (Verzuh, 2015). Least favorite case study and reason for it: The least favorite case study is "Boo.com gets booted out". The reason is that it promised their online shoppers with online purchase of designer and high quality sportswear but after the publicity, they suddenly declared bankruptcy and resulted in the loss of $185. Case Studies in Chapter 4 The main idea of the opening vignette:The businesses are not aware of investing in Internet of Things technology and since the usefulness of IOT is, known but still companies are unable to develop healthy strategies to use. Most personal case study and reason for it:The most personal case study is "Porter's thoughts on Internet Strategy" because it shows that The Internet is most efficient technology, which helps in making strategies in any industries. Least favorite case study and the reason for it:The least favorite case study is Kmart looses due to lack of attention to e-business because the company was a large group of retails stores but was bankrupt in 2002 due to its improper IT strategy. Case Studies in Chapter 5 The main idea of the opening vignette: Walmart gained practical competitive advantages by making itself the largest and most efficient sales as well as supply chain structure in the industry of retailers. Most personal case study and the reason for it: The most personal case study is "Possible use of Big Data, Analytics, and Learning in Business Applications" because it provides improved decision-making and helps the managers to gain enhanced intuition for better operations. Least favorite case study and reason for it: The least favorite case study of Outsourcing through a service provider of application because the cost of outsourcing the application services by the service provider is maximum (Kerzner, 2013). Case Studies in Chapter 6 The main idea of the opening vignette:It is necessary to have a better understanding of the risks related to important ERP project. Most personal case study and reason for it:The most personal case study is about "Kinion Furniture" because they established online order entry structure which is connected with DBA system and introduced web-oriented intranet with the help of SharePoint Team Services for real-time access to information. Least favorite case study and reason for it:The least favorite case study is about An integrated manufacturing system because this system is comprised of decision support, operational support, and real-time. The interconnection of the above applications is the major challenge faced by Xbuild company (Hussein Hafseld, 2014). Planning Methodology Addressing of business issues before technology issues- Yes The main competitor-AccellentInc The new entrants-2 Wire, Inc The substitute products-The substitute products would be the implementation of some new models for manufacturing of electronic products. Product strategy-New products to new customers The main business processes- Procurement, Logistics, Enterprise business process, Distributions, Operations, Products development, Marketing, Customer Account, Sales, and After sales services. The critical business processes- Project management, Risk Analysis and Review, and Testing and Exercising The name of the software package that could be of high value for this company- com References Braglia, M., Frosolini, M. (2014). An integrated approach to implement project management information systems within the extended enterprise.International Journal of Project Management,32(1), 18-29. Fitzsimmons, J., Fitzsimmons, M. (2013).Service management: Operations, strategy, information technology. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Hussein, B. A., Hafseld, K. H. (2014). Impact of conformity, commitment and management style on an information system project.International Journal of Computing,13(4), 227-239. Kerzner, H. R. (2013).Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Marchewka, J. T. (2014).Information technology project management. John Wiley Sons. Olson, D. (2014).Information systems project management. Business Expert Press. Raymond, L., Bergeron, F. (2015). Impact of Project Management Information Systems on Project Performance. InHandbook on Project Management and Scheduling Vol. 2(pp. 1339-1354). Springer International Publishing. Schwalbe, K. (2015).Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Verzuh, E. (2015).The fast forward MBA in project management. John Wiley Sons.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Why has the membership of the major political parties declined in recent years Essay The membership of the major political parties has declined alarmingly in recent decades. In the 1950s, Labour had a million members and the Conservatives over two million, but nowadays they have 360,000 and 335,000 respectively. Parties are keen to recruit as many members as possible as they can provide important campaigning and financial support. There must be some wider reason for this phenomenon, as it did not affect just one party. Political apathy may be one factor, as people lose interest in the political system in general. Another possible reason could be the dissatisfaction the electorate feel towards the political parties of today. The class and party de-alignment arguments could also be used to explain this contrast with yesteryear- that the changes in the class system have left people unsure about whom their natural representatives are. The huge increase in floating voters may have something to do with this decline as well. Evans (1997) suggests another possibility, rather than people not participating in politics, this generation has shifted from party politics to supporting pressure groups. A politically apathetic electorate would have no interest in politics; therefore they would not join political parties. This state of mind has increased dramatically, possibly as a result of the move by the major parties in their stances. Moves, initially, by the Labour Party but subsequently by the Conservatives have left very little distinction between the parties. As the Labour Party shifted towards the centre under Blairs early leadership period, so did the Conservatives as a reaction against the Thatcher stereotype. We will write a custom essay sample on Why has the membership of the major political parties declined in recent years specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Why has the membership of the major political parties declined in recent years specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Why has the membership of the major political parties declined in recent years specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This might have left the electorate feeling discontented, as there would not be as much political debate from two sides that operate so close to each other in their policies. Political apathy can be measured in a number of ways: party membership, turnout, and public opinion polls, although these are not completely reliable, as people might not vote for certain reasons and not join parties for reasons other than political apathy. Without a change in the attraction of politics and parties, this should not change. There would need to be more opportunity to get involved in politics than under the current political system, possibly an increase in referenda and initiatives. This might make the electorate more interested in politics, and consequently political parties. Parties and their politicians have also been given a poor image by the media in recent years, which may have resulted in people not supporting the political parties by not joining them. Incidents like the Neil Hamilton saga and the introduction of negative campaigning show politics up to be a dirty business and one that many people dont want to be a part of. The political parties have become much more centralised now, with less power allowed to the members, and this has been reflected by the membership figures. The politicians in comparison with the constituency groups now hold much more power and some people may think there is nothing to be gained from joining the parties other than funding something that they are not a part of. Party conferences, formerly a means of allowing the member a real vote, are now seen as a media charade. The de-centralisation of the main parties would probably considerably increase their membership, as the members would be in a position to have their say and not have their party managed by an elite. Traditionally, Labour has attracted working class support whereas the Conservatives have got their vote from the middle and upper class. However, according to Crewe (1977), following the emergence of an evolved class system, with a smaller working class, the traditional class boundaries have been eliminated with people making rational choices about their vote. This is the same with whichever party they are going to join, if any. People are not necessarily going to support their class representatives anymore. As these people become more sceptical and objective about the state of the different parties, so have the parties changed their policies to suit most people as opposed to their traditional voters. This has led to a loss of core support, and an increase in the floating vote. There is nothing to suggest that this trend of rational choice voting is going to change. On the contrary, if de-industrialisation continues, the movement towards rational choice voting would gather pace and membership figures would decrease further. For an election victory, the floating vote is very important but these voters will not join a party and will therefore not donate or participate in political activities. The floating electorate choose their affiliations in the short-term, and are the most objective of the different types of voters. Their only commitment is to the party that most attracts them with its various factors whose popularity can only be defined by the individual. They will not participate in party activities- such as assistance in election campaigns, donating money, etc. as they are not members. The increase in this group would explain any change in the party membership. During recent years, the trend has been to support single-issue groups as opposed to broad groups like political parties. In this pattern, there is a divide, where younger people are interested in these single-issue protest activities whereas the older generation are more dedicated to political party activity. Whereas only 6% of 15-34 year olds describe themselves as very interested in politics, 73% see themselves as particularly interested in the homeless situation, and similar proportions have concern about disabled rights, animal rights, and increased funding for the NHS. This could suggest that in the future party enrolment will decrease even more as the previous generation of party activists die out. In conclusion, there are five main reasons for the decline of party membership: an increase in political apathy, due in some considerable way to the move to the centre ground which has disillusioned more partisan support; the distrust surrounding politics, especially showed in the media coverage of sleaze and negative campaigning; the class-dealignment experienced by Britain as a result of de-industrialisation, which has left more people moving to a rational choice model of voting; this having resulted in an increase in floating voters who do not tie themselves down to one political party; and the younger generations tendency to be more interested in single-issue politics than the wide spectrum of issues in politics today. If the following continue as expected, party membership will decrease even further. To stop this movement, parties and the political system will need to change to allow the electorate a bigger role in political decision-making. It should be noted that these conclusions could also be used in the explanation of the decline in the faith of the electorate in the present political system.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The great exhibiton essays In 1851 Britain had reached the pinnacle of technological superiority. The newly appointed Prince Albert of Germany wished to hold an exhibition that would create a new starting point from which all nations would be able to direct further exertions. In other words, The Great Exhibition would set a new standard for all nations wishing to compete in the technological spectrum. Another reason for Alberts desire to hold an exhibition of the works of industry was to create free trade and capitalism. The English Prince wanted to educate people and bring together all the quarters of the globe. The Exhibition also enabled nationalism to flourish; causing Britons to be proud and patriotic about their nations achievements. However, when Prince Alberts idea of holding The Great Exhibition came into circulation much controversy and opposition was caused. Luddites or people opposed to technological development violently disagreed with the idea. A portion of the British public disliked Albert due to his German origin and thus disliked his idea of holding the Great Exhibition. The nature conscious segments of British society were negatively disposed to the idea as they feared it would mutilate and turn Hyde Park into a monstrosity. People also feared that the Exhibition would attract vagrants. However, none of these fears and apprehensions proved to be a barrier as all were taken into consideration, with the peoples concerns at heart. In keeping with Hyde Parks flora and general beauty, architect Joseph Paxton was hired. Paxton incorporated trees into the central design of the Great Exhibition. He also created a circular roof similar to the Great Conservatory at Chatsworth, and utilized materials such as g lass and steal so as to minimize the impact on Hyde Park and its surroundings. After viewing Alberts and Paxtons plans, people opposed to Albert and the Exhibition settle...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Indefatigable Indefatigable Indefatigable By Maeve Maddox A reader asks about the words fatigable, defatigable, and indefatigable: Indefatigable apparently is of the same/identical meaning [as defatigable]. Then why is the in used as a prefix of defatigable, when in is generally used to invert the meaning, as in incorrigible (antonym of corrigible)? The reader says that he understands fatigable to refer to a person Ã¢â¬Å"who can be fatiguedÃ¢â¬ and defatigable to a person Ã¢â¬Å"who can be treated for exhaustion.Ã¢â¬ The reader has misunderstood the meaning of de- in indefatigable. Note: The pronunciation of indefatigable is IN-duh-FAT-i-guh-buhl. Fatigable and defatigable mean the same thing. They have Latin equivalents: fatigare verb: to weary, tire, fatigue. fatigatio noun: weariness, fatigue. defatigare verb: to weary, fatigue, tire. defatigatio noun: exhaustion, weariness, fatigue. The Latin prefix de- is used with more than one meaning. One of these meanings, in both Latin and in English, is this: de- (prefix): down to the bottom, completely, thoroughly. Both fatigable and defatigable connote weariness, but the weariness expressed by defatigable is total exhaustion. Latin also has source words for the form indefatigable: indefatigabilis adjective: untiring indefatigatus adjective: not tired A Google search produces about 22,000 results for defatigable, 114,000 for fatigable, and 708,000 for indefatigable. The Ngram Viewer shows a marked decline in the use of indefatigable in recent decades. Here are recent examples of the use of indefatigable on the Web: Indefatigable drive and charisma have made Maura Healey the states attorney general and theÃ one to watch in Massachusetts politics.Ã To some, millennials- those urban-dwelling, ride-sharing indefatigable social networkers- are engaged, upbeat and open to change. To others, they are narcissistic, lazy and self-centered. The marigolds areÃ indefatigable. The geraniums are lush and valiant.Ã TheÃ indefatigableÃ Vermont Sen. BernieÃ Sanders, of course, led the pack. Indefatigable is the opposite of defatigable and means, Ã¢â¬Å"incapable of being fatigued.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:The Yiddish Handbook: 40 Words You Should Know20 Pairs of One-Word and Two-Word FormsInspiring vs. Inspirational
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Fashion, popular pleasures and media - Essay Example The essay "Fashion, popular pleasures and media" talks about media, fashion and popular pleasures. The anguish in choosing the reading material for the aware and modern women helps define the difficult relationship between feminism and fashion. Even though she has an aversion towards the way women are portrayed in media but she herself is an active participant in the utilization and enjoys clothes and shopping. A six-year-old Sally and an eight-year-old Billy are sitting in front of the television enjoying their favorite programs. Suddenly an advertisement disrupts their favorite television show. The advertisement shows a woman cleaning a kitchen with a product that looks to be easy and enjoyable to use. The woman is smiling while she does her chore as she turns towards the camera and states on how quick the product helped her to clean the kitchen. Both Billy and Sally sit patiently through the advertisement and wait for their show to restart. They do not pay any attention towards th e advertisement. This is a scene that takes place at every household. Even though the time span is very short but the social impact is way beyond our imagination. A lot of individuals live their lives without being aware that how there advertisements shape their lives and how their roles get socialized. Advertisements places genders into given set roles and help perpetuate gender stereotypes. Gender representation has always been vital in order to understand what it actually means to be male or female. In the images provided to us in the patriarchal mass media surrounding us, it is always supposed that it has been encouraged to mould oneself according to a set ideal. For women, it means passivity, elegance, beauty, and good domestic ability. While for a man it means being aggressive, competitive and business minded. Now in the 21st century however, these ideas no longer seen important in order to be accepted into a society. Now, women are often self-reliant and career focused while a lot of men feel that it is their right to express themselves and indulgence themselves, to love and be loved. The new woman and new man are present in the contemporary society but the representation in advertisement is otherwise. As it is seen in the media, the role of women is highly limiting and stereotypical. Association of women with specific domestic roles has been solidified in advertisement. Women have been portrayed not as decision makers but as domestic providers who are dependent on men and are sex objects. Even though the number of offensive advertisements has declined but women are still seen as belonging to the private life of their homes. Women have to play multiple roles. One dimension is the fulfillment of her home duties and the other being a complete sex object. Early on, in the beginning of the nineteenth century, media provided a very clear cut distinction in roles of gender and the different variations within which they are exhibited. The typical
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Cultural Differences and Their Effect on Strategic Planning - Case Study Example India is the prime destination for outsourcing of services as well as the destination of new firms. It is one of the emerging economies with great potential for the future. Although it will be a huge step for Telmarket to move into a market so diverse from the UK, the setting up and operating costs will be relatively low. India has an abundance of human resources and the environment will be conducive to success. The expansion of Telmarket into an international market such as India will have many strategic implications for the firm. Indian culture differs greatly from British culture and thus many cultural issues may emerge. Culture defines behavior, values, and ambitions; and especially for businesses involved in training, culture affects every aspect of operations. The target market of Telmarket includes individuals and firms that are involved in marketing and customer care and thus the language barrier may result in problems. Hindi is the national and other languages are prevalent as well. As a UK based training firm Telmarket would impart most training in English and with relevance to English speaking customers, however, if the customers of their clients are Indian it will be necessary to train them in Hindu and/or other languages as well. Thus Telmarket would have to hire trainers from India. This could turn out to be an advantage for Telmarket in the form of salaries. Pay scales in India are lower than those in the UK and to hire Indians would cost less than to bring English trainers. The strategic implication of the language barrier might be in training and hiring costs. Trainers recruited in India might not meet the requirement of the firm and may need to be sent to the UK to for further training themselves this will increase recruitment and hiring costs whereas employee salaries may remain low.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Cosmic Race Essay The term Ã¢â¬Å"Cosmic RaceÃ¢â¬ is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"La raza cosmicaÃ¢â¬ which was based on the opinions of some Mexican Scholars in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s who held that since the Latin Americans held the blood of all the races, the transcended the races of the Ã¢â¬Å"Old WorldÃ¢â¬ . This term basically embodies the idea that traditional, exclusive concepts of race and nationality can be transcended in the name of humanitys common destiny (MacLachlan, 1980). While the idea of the origins or creation of the Ã¢â¬Å"Cosmic RaceÃ¢â¬ has been attributed to other races, there is no denying that it was the Spaniards who played a major role in this. The open-mindedness, in this case the open philosophy and attitude of Spain regarding culture and society, was influential in creating this cosmic race. Spain realized that the key to being able to build a vital and flourishing economy in the colony was to build a common denominator for acculturation by both Indian and European races (MacLachlan, 1980). Spain was able to accomplish this by establishing and expanding the colonial political and ecclesiastical institutions, the economy, society, and the role of women in the Mexica Society. Further proof of this was the policies of Spain regarding women as they encouraged the women to participate in economics and politics by providing the women during that time with extensive legal rights (MacLachlan, 1980). These factors and the methods by which Spain cultivated the Mexica Empire are brought on by the characteristic of Spain as being Ã¢â¬Å"open-mindedÃ¢â¬ , which in turn led to the creation of the Ã¢â¬Å"Cosmic Race. Ã¢â¬ References: MacLachlan, C. and Rodriguez, J. (1980) The Forging of the Cosmic Race: A Reinterpretation of Colonial Mexico. University of California Press,
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is the most anterior portion of the frontal lobe. It responds mostly to stimuli signaling the need for movement, however it is also responsible for many other specialized functions. It receives information from all sensory systems and can integrate a large amount of information (Kalat 2004). Studies have shown that the prefrontal cortex is responsible for working memory. Working memory is defined as "the information that is currently available in memory for working on a problem" (Anderson 2005). The prefrontal cortex (PFC) also controls behaviors that depend on context (Kalat 2004). For example, if my cell phone rings when I am at the mall or grocery store I would answer it. If it rings while I am at the movies or in class I wouldn't answer it. People with frontal lobe damage often exhibit inappropriate behaviors due to the inability to recognize context. Other studies indicate that the PFC is also responsible for regulating emotions and decision-making. A study was conducted in which participants were presented with three dilemmas. One dilemma was called the Trolley Dilemma: a trolley is headed toward five people standing on the track. You can switch the trolley to another track killing only one person instead of five. Subjects were asked to decide between right and wrong. Brain scans of the participants show that contemplating the dilemmas activates the prefrontal cortex and other areas that respond to emotion (Kalat 2004). Sustaining a lesion to the prefrontal cortex produces a wide variety of side effects. The effects range from minor to severe. You can get a lesion by head trauma or stroke (CJ Long 2005). Possible deficits associated with minor lesions of the prefrontal cortex: - Inability to respond quickly to verbal instructions - Speech dysfluency - Disturbances in understanding complex pictures or words - Difficulties with problem-solving - Deficits in complex tasks requiring inhibition of habitual behavior patterns With more extensive lesions the person experiences greater behavior deficits. These deficits include: perseveration, which is the inability to make behavioral shifts in attention, movement and attitude, decreased creativity, poor recall of verbal and nonverbal material, difficulty writing, and deficits in comprehension of logical-grammatical constructions (CJ Long 2005). Other effects of extensive lesions: - easily distracted - disturbances in memory - defects in time sense - decreased anxiety - less critical of oneself - difficulty with unfamiliar analogies - impulsivity
Monday, November 11, 2019
Smoking surcease or baccy surcease can be defined as wide scope of enterprises that assist current tobacco users to decrease their smoke wont ( Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, 2001 ) . However, in another context, smoking surcease is defined as assortment types of aid and intervention that can be offered by wellness practicians including doctor and druggist straight to tobacco users in order to help them to discontinue or cut down smoke ( Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, 2001 ) . In Malaysia, there are a broad scope of smoking surcease aid provided such as pharmacotherapy like Nicotine Replacement Therapy ( NRT ) and bupropion, quit smoke clinic in which about 300 quit clinics can be available about in every territory in Malaysia, infoline, quitline and educational stuff such as posting, booklet and brochure ( Samsudin et al. , 2008 ) . Many smoking surcease programmes, schemes and runs were conducted in this state in order to increase people knowledge on bad hazards of smoke and to i nform them assorted sorts of aids available to assist them cut down smoking wellness hazards and to halt smoke. However, to guarantee effectivity, we have to supervise their cognition whether they are better informed and understand or non. Some people may hold incorrect information on this. Some may hold the cognition, but they do non transform it into belief. Some did non have information on this. Therefore, this could be a barrier for them to discontinue smoke or to cut down smoking wellness hazards. Although there are many smoking surcease schemes and programmes held in this state, there are still a batch of people that have information missing sing the bad hazards of smoke and smoke surcease available in Malaysia. However, there are some people that think that they have adequately informed about smoke, but many of them, really have a incorrect information or misperception on this. For illustration, some tobacco users have misperception that nicotine is the primary cause of tobacco-related wellness job. As a effect, this misperception on nicotine may do them to afraid in sing the use of nicotine replacing therapy in discontinuing smoke.1.2 AimsThe chief aims of this research are to find the differences in the degree of cognition between current tobacco users, former tobacco users and non-smokers in Universiti Teknologi Mara ( UiTM ) Puncak Alam and Shah Alam on smoking wellness hazard and smoking surcease aid available in Malaysia, to find the relationship among demographic and smoke position variables and the different cognition indices and to find the relationship among different degree of dependence of current tobacco users and the different cognition indices.1.3 SignificanceThe consequence of this survey will help the effectiveness attack of the current smoke surcease schemes and programmes held by authorities and non-government establishment to increase cognition and to supply more information on the jeopardies of smoke and smoke surcease aid available in Malaysia.1.4 HypothesisThere are significance differences in the degree of cognition on smoking wellness hazards and smoking surcease between current tobacco users, former tobacco users and non tobacco users and besides between different demographics, smoking position and degree of dependence of current tobacco users. Former tobacco users and current tobacco users that believe will halt smoke following twelvemonth, that of all time use any of the smoke surcease aid and that have low degree of nicotin e dependence will be more knowing on the wellness hazards of smoke and smoke surcease aid provided in Malaysia.Chapter TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Prevalence of smokePresently, approximately 1.3 billion people smoke and more than five million people die globally as a consequence of smoke every twelvemonth ( Jilan et al. , 2010 ) . In the bulk of high-income states, there is a important decrease in baccy ingestion ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . For illustration, the prevalence of smoke among Americans in the United States of America had reduced from 40 per centum in 1964 to 23 per centum in 1997 ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . However, in developing states including Malaysia, there is contrast prevalence with high-income states in which there is an addition in baccy ingestion ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . In Malaysia, there is an addition in the prevalence of smoke among grownups aged 15 old ages and above from 21 per centum in 1985 to 31 per centum in 2000 ( Disease Co ntrol Division, 2003 ) . Current tobacco users constitute five per centum of all grownup females and 49 per centum of all grownup males ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . As the population grows, the prevalence of tobacco users will go on to increase ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . In Malaysia, there are about five million tobacco users in which each of them is utilizing an norm of 14 coffin nails daily ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . From this prevalence, 90 per centum comprise of male ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . Whereas, the prevalence of smoke among adults age 18 and above in Malaysia that is obtained from three National Health and Morbidity studies which have been conducted since 1986 were more than 20 per centum, 21.5 per centum in 1986, 24.8 per centum in 1996 and 22.8 per centum in 2006 ( Lim et al.,2009 ) . In China, there are more than 70 per centum of all Chinese, or more than 600 million Chinese people are often exposed to secondhand fume or inactive fume ( Jilan et al. , 2010 ) .2.2 Chemicals Contained in CigaretteCigarettes are the simply marketed consumable merchandise in which when it is used as intended, it may take to the decease of half or more of its users ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Corelli & A ; Hudmon ( 2009 ) , coffin nails are carefully engineered preparations that optimize the nicotine bringing, in which nicotine is a chemical that meets the feature for an habit-forming substance. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are identified to show in big sums i n baccy fume and are accountable for most drug interactions with smoke ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Other substances in baccy fume such as pyridines, benzine, propanone, nicotine, heavy metals and C monoxide might look to hold less important effects to interact with hepatic enzymes ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) .2.3 PathophysiologyTobacco smoke is accountable for about 80 per centum of lung malignant neoplastic disease instances ( Wells et al. , 2009 ) . Exposure to environmental baccy fume is the most common etiology that can take to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( Wells et al. , 2009 ) . Inhalation of harmful atoms and gases into the human organic structure may trip the activation of macrophages, neutrophils and CD8+ lymph cells ( Wells et al. , 2009 ) . As a consequence of this activation, a assortment of chemical go-betweens such as leukotriene B4, tumour mortification factor-IÃ ± and interleukin-8 are released and eventually, lead to widespread destructive changes in the air passages, lung parenchyma and besides pneumonic vasculature ( Wells et al. , 2009 ) . In add-on, oxidant gases and other substances in the coffin nail fume are believed to excite a hypercoaguble province identified by elevated thrombocyte collection and thrombosis, taking to elevated hazard of myocardial infarction and sudden decease ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Whereas, the C monoxide in contained in coffin nail fume decreases the measure of O available to weave and organ including myocardial tissue, therefore diminishing the threshold of ventricular fibrillation ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . It could besides rush coronary artery disease through its effects on serum lipoids, as a consequence, tobacco users have a inclination toward higher degrees of entire cholesterin, triglycerides, LDL-C and lower HDL-C compared to nonsmokers ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . The increased degrees of inflammatory go-betweens caused by smoke may besides lend to atherosclerosis ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Whereas, the initiation of neurotransmitters release including adrenaline and noradrenaline caused by smoke may heighten myocardial work load and trigger coronary vasoconstriction that can take to arrhythmias, ischaemia and sudden decease ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Addiction of nicotine is one signifier of chronic encephalon unwellness that consequences from alterations in encephalon chemical science ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . The rapid soaking up of nicotine contained in baccy merchandises and their transition across the blood-brain barrier contributes to its habit-forming nature ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Nicotine can make the encephalon merely within seconds by inspiration of coffin nail fume ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . After being absorbed, nicotine stimulates a widespread of cardinal nervous system, cardiovascular and metabolic effects and induces several neurotransmitters release such as Dopastat, hence stimulates the immediate feelings of pleasance, together with alleviation of the nicotine backdown symptoms ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . The celerity of this dose response reinforces repeated drug disposal and perpetuates the smoke behaviour ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Chronic nicotine disposal has been proven to ensue in a higher sum of nicotine receptors in specific compartment in the encephalon and this is believed to qualify upregulation in response to nicotine-mediated desensitisation of the receptors and it play a undertaking in tolerance and dependance of nicotine ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Unusually, the tobacco user experiences marked pharmacologic effects, particularly arousal, after smoking the first coffin nail of the twenty-four hours ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . There are no other coffin nails throughout the twenty-four hours that will bring forth the similar grade of rousing ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Because of this, many tobacco users express the first coffin nail as the most important one of the twenty-four hours ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) .2.4 Hazards and Effectss of Smoking on HealthIn Malaysia, smoke is responsible for one out of every five deceases that occur in this state ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . Consistent and convincing grounds associating the usage of baccy with several of serious cardiovascular, neoplastic and pneumonic diseases has been provided by many cohort surveies, case-control surveies, and other informations beginnings ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . Smoke is recognized to rush the coronary artery disease proced ure, which will contributes to the chronic cardiovascular disease such as congestive bosom failure, coronary bosom disease, aortal aneurism, and cerebrovascular disease ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . By smoking, it may besides increases the hazard for developing acute cardiovascular events such as shot, sudden decease and myocardial infarction ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . In United States, lung malignant neoplastic disease is the taking cause of cancer-related mortality for both sexes ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Secondhand smoke or inactive fume exposure may besides lend to several diseases among nonsmoking kids and grownups ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Pregnant adult females are besides vulnerable to smoking wellness hazard. Exposure to nicotine contained in the coffin nail fume can take to increase of ectopic gestation, low birth weight, increased hazard of self-generated abortion, and sweetening in perinatal mortality, aortal blood flow and bosom rate and decreased uterine blood flow and external respiration have been reported in the foetus ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . Prenatal smoke is responsible for about 18 per centum of instances of low birth weight and moreover, it can besides heighten hazard of respiratory distress syndrome, premature bringing and sudden baby decease syndrome ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . The most strongly documented inauspicious consequence of smoking during gestation is intrauterine growing deceleration ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . In patients with lung, caput and cervix malignant neoplastic disease, which are successfully treated, but continue to smoke, hold a higher hazard for 2nd malignant neoplastic disease ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) .2.5 Smoking surcease aids and intercessionIn order to diminish mortality and morbidity associated with tobacco-related diseases, smoking surcease intercession is an of import component of an overall baccy control plan ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Disease Control Division ( 2003 ) , there are two classs of clinical intercession for individual that willing to discontinue smoke which are brief clinical intercession and intensive clinical intercession. The first one, which is brief intercession can be subdivided into pharmacological, non-pharmacological or combination of several agents ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . For non-pharmacological intercession, it consists of five major stairss which are called the Ã¢â¬Å" 5A Ã¢â¬Ës Ã¢â¬ which are ask, advice, buttocks, aid and arrange ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . For pharmacological intercession, it consists of several agents that have been proved to be effectual and have been suggested as first line agents for pharmacotherapy including nicotine replacing therapy ( NRT ) such as nicotine gum, nicotine spot and nicotine inhalator and besides sustained release ( SR ) bupropion ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . In intensive clinical intercessions, the continuance of single intervention Sessionss and the sum of intervention Sessionss are increasing and there are specialised behavioral therapies ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . The behavioral therapy can be categorized into practical guidance such as stress direction, intra-treatment and extra-treatment societal support ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . It is said that this type of intercession is more efficient than brief intercession ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . For kids and striplings, it is shown that reding and behavioral therapies are more effectual and recommended for them ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . Whereas, for grownups ages 50 and older, reding intercessions, physician advice, telephone guidance and the nicotine spot are shown to be effectual ( Disease Control Division, 2003 ) . Many tobacco users are sing a trouble in discontinuing smoke due to the presence of nicotine backdown symptoms following disconnected surcease of baccy usage ( Bansal et al. , 2004 ) . Nicotine replacing medicines including nicotine spot, inhalator, lozenges, gum, and nasal spray have been shown to relieve backdown symptoms during first phases of smoking surcease and they improves discontinuing rates in clinical tests ( Bansal et al. , 2004 ) . The short-run use of nicotine that contained in the nicotine replacing therapy presents really little hazards compared with possible jeopardies of continued smoke, even in individuals with bosom disease ( Mooney, Leventhal & A ; Hatsukami, 2006 ) . Therefore, tobacco users should non worry to utilize the nicotine replacing therapy to discontinue smoke. However, for pregnant adult females, the usage of nicotine replacing medicines to help them in quit smoke has non been sufficiently studied ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . Therefore, nonpharmacologic interventions are more recommended for them in quit smoke ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) .2.5.1 Mechanism of Action of Nicotine Replacement MerchandisesBasically, nicotine is a naturally-occuring alkaloid that exhibits their major effects through stimulation of ganglia ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . It is a powerful stimulation of ganglionic and cardinal nervous system through nicotine-specific receptors ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . Biphasic actions are observed d epend on the dosage of nicotine administered ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . In little doses of nicotine, the primary consequence of nicotine is stimulation of all autonomic ganglia, whereas, in larger doses of nicotine, initial stimulation is followed by transmittal encirclement ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . Biphasic effects are besides proved in the adrenal myelin, in which in little doses, it may do a catecholamines release, and oppositely in big doses, it may suppress the release of catecholamines as a response to splanchnic nervus stimulation ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . Central nervous system stimulation is illustrated by shudders and respiratory excitement, but in larger doses, paroxysms and respiratory failure may happen which are secondary to cardinal palsy and peripheral encirclement to respiratory musculuss ( Lacy et al. , 2010 ) . Nicotine Replacement Products enhances success for smoking surcease by diminishing the physical backdown symptoms related with smoking surcease while the tobacco users focuses on seting their behaviour and managing with the psychological facet of discontinuing ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) . Furthermore, because the oncoming of action for this medicines is non every bit fast as that of nicotine contained in coffin nail, smokers become less accustomed to the blink of an eye and reenforcing effects of inhaled baccy ( Corelli & A ; Hudmon, 2009 ) .2.6 People Ã¢â¬Ës cognition on smoking wellness hazardsHarmonizing to Disease Control Division ( 2003 ) , one of the grounds for a individual unwilling to do a quit effort is because of information missing sing the harmful effects of baccy. Whereas, the comparative deficiency of attempt to better Tell and educate tobacco users sing the merchandises that they use is partially the consequence of common premise that tobacco users are already b etter informed about the smoke wellness hazard ( Cummings et al. , 2004 ) . It does non intend that people are adequately informed about smoke in manner that may impact their smoke behaviour if they merely have general consciousness of smoking wellness hazard ( Cummings et al. , 2004 ) . Even though sweetening in perceptual experience of hazard are non invariably adequate to diminish smoking on their ain, betterment in wellness cognition are greatly related with decreases in smoking induction, sweetening in discontinuing behaviour and long-run abstention from smoking ( Jilan et al. , 2010 ) . However, harmonizing to Poureslami ( 2003 ) , being knowing about smoking Ã¢â¬Ës bad consequence on wellness is deficient to advance behavior alterations. His survey shown that belief and alteration in attitude are needed to optimise behaviour and to promote healthy life style ( Poureslami, 2003 ) . In the survey of Wang & A ; Annette ( as cited in Jilan et al. , 2010 ) , they conducted a survey among industrial workers in Shanghai and revealed that merely 53 per centum of tobacco users and 76 per centum of non-smokers were recognize that smoke can be harmful to wellness, and merely 51 per centum of tobacco users reported that smoke can take to lung malignant neoplastic disease. In the survey of Taylor et Al. ( as cited in Lim et al. , 2009 ) , they found that tobacco users particularly heavy tobacco users have a positive attitude toward smoking when compared to formers and non tobacco users. In a survey conducted by Lim et Al. ( 2009 ) , they had conducted a survey to happen out the degree of cognition and to understand respondents Ã¢â¬Ë attitude towards smoke and besides to happen out how sociodemographic background, smoking position and smoke wellness hazard can impact respondents Ã¢â¬Ë attitudes toward smoking. From their survey, they found that cognition and attitude differ based on position of smoke and tobacco users possess a low degree of cognition and they have more positive attitudes compared with non-smokers ( Lim et al. , 2009 ) . Besides that, they were besides found that degree of instruction was greatly associated with cognition and attitude tonss ( Lim et al. , 2009 ) . The most surprising informations found was female respondents whose cognition Ã¢â¬Ës degree on jeopardies of smoke is low ; nevertheless, they show more negative attitudes towards smoking in comparing with males respondents ( Lim et al. , 2009 ) . In the survey conducted by Cummings et Al. ( 2004 ) , they were evaluated on the tobacco users Ã¢â¬Ë belief on smoking wellness hazard and the advantages of smoke filtered and low-tar coffin nails, and besides tobacco user Ã¢â¬Ës consciousness and involvement in seeking alleged reduced hazard baccy merchandises and nicotine medicines. They stated that when they asked the respondent whether they consider themselves to be better informed sing the smoke wellness hazard, 94 per centum of them answered it confidently ( Cummings et al. , 2004 ) . However, from the cognition indices in which each respondent was assessed their degree of cognition by giving a mark for the right responses, 39 per centum of them either answered falsely or responded Ã¢â¬Å" make non cognize Ã¢â¬ to the inquiries sing smoking wellness hazard ( Cummings et al. , 2004 ) . These consequence shows that some of the respondents think they are better informed but really, there is much information that they did no n cognize sing the smoke wellness hazard. Besides that, the writers besides found that tobacco users who believed they will discontinue smoke in the following twelvemonth were more knowing about smoke, whereas tobacco users who believed that they will discontinue smoke before sing serious wellness jobs were less knowing about smoke ( Cummings et al. , 2004 ) . In the survey conducted by Jilan et Al. ( 2010 ) , in which the writers where assessed fluctuations between the wellness cognition of current, former and ne'er tobacco users on smoke and the consequence of wellness cognition consciousness on tobacco users Ã¢â¬Ë purpose to halt smoke, they found that current tobacco users in China were less likely to admit the wellness consequence of smoke compared to former and non tobacco users. They besides found that current tobacco users who had consciousness of wellness consequence of smoking were more prone to hold purpose to halt smoke ( Jilan et al. , 2010 ) .2.7 People Ã¢â¬Ës cognition of smoking surcease aidsSome of the tobacco users have a uncertainty sing the effectivity of nicotine replacing therapy and they believe that discontinuing on their ain, without aids such as guidance and medicine, is every bit or much more effectual than assisted surcease ( Mooney, Leventhal & A ; Hatsukami, 2006 ) . They have misinformation and deficiency of information sing the smoke surcease assistances particularly approximately nicotine replacing therapy. Besides that, some of tobacco users have misperception that nicotine is a primary cause of tobacco-related wellness job ( Mooney, Leventhal & A ; Hatsukami, 2006 ) . Therefore, this lead to a uncertainty among tobacco users to utilize nicotine replacing therapy to assist them in smoking surcease. Harmonizing to Bansal et Al. ( 2004 ) , they besides stated that misperceptions on the nicotine Ã¢â¬Ës wellness hazard and safety and effectivity of nicotine replacing therapy may do some tobacco users afraid and concerns to sing the usage of these medicines to help them in smoking surcease. Harmonizing to Bansal et Al. ( 2004 ) , in order to increase cognition sing on safety and efficaciousness of nicotine medicines, loath tobacco users should be offered a opportunity to seek nicotine medicines on a test footing, in which finally enhance usage of these medicines for smoking surcease. Unfortunately, the writers stated that cognition of nicotine wellness hazard and how the medicines work, even among those who had antecedently used nicotine medicines, was still deficient ( Bansal et al. , 2004 ) . Harmonizing to the survey by Cummings et Al. ( 2004 ) , 56 per centum of respondents either answered falsely or responded Ã¢â¬Å" make non cognize Ã¢â¬ sing the cognition on nicotine medicines. The writers besides revealed that a individual with past experience of utilizing nicotine medicines prone to be more knowing sing the safety and efficaciousness of these merchandises ( Cummings et al. , 2004 ) . Harmonizing to the survey by Mooney, Leventhal & A ; Hatsukami ( 2006 ) , tobacco users with more terrible dependance which perceived larger demand for intervention of smoking surcease yet had lower accurate cognition sing the disease-causing function of nicotine. The survey besides found that participants who had stop smoke antecedently for a longer continuance of clip had a more favourable position of smoking surcease intervention and nicotine replacing therapy ( Mooney, Leventhal & A ; Hatsukami, 2006 ) . In the survey of Etter & A ; Perneger ( as cited in Bansal et al. , 2004 ) , a survey on about 500 tobacco users and former tobacco users was conducted in order to place their attitudes toward the usage of nicotine medicines. From this survey, they found that many tobacco users were worried to utilize nicotine medicines due to safety concern ( Bansal et al. , 2004 ) . From this survey, merely 16 per centum of them were agreed that nicotine medicines assist people in smoking surcease ( Bansal et al. , 2004 ) . Besides that, the survey besides revealed that those who had antecedently used nicotine medicines and those most interested to discontinue smoke in the hereafter have the highest cognition on nicotine medicines ( Bansal et al. , 2004 ) .Chapter 3Methodology3.1 IntroductionIn planing a cross sectional study on cognition of current tobacco users, former tobacco users and non tobacco users on smoking wellness hazards and smoking surcease, few sets of validated questionnaires had be en adopted, modified and being distributed to respondents in two selected locations which are UiTM in Puncak Alam and Shah Alam.3.2 InstrumentPartially of the questionnaires was adopted from validated questionnaire in a survey entitled Are tobacco users adequately informed about the wellness hazards of smoke and medicative nicotine by Cummings et Al. ( 2004 ) . Besides that a validated questionnaire was besides adapted from a survey entitled Smoking and Nurses in New Zealand. ASH-KAN Aotearoa: Appraisal of smoking history, cognition and attitudes of nurses in New Zealand by Wong et Al. ( 2007 ) and besides a validated questionnaire from a Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence by Heatherton et Al. ( 1991 ) . Some alterations had been done harmonizing to the suitableness of the subject, aim of the survey and smoke position. The questionnaire consists of four parts which cover demographic informations, smoke position, degree of nicotine dependance and cognition index. Knowledge index is divided into several countries which are smoking wellness hazards, content of coffin nail fume, safety of nicotine, low-tar and filter coffin nails, additives contained in coffin nails and nicotine medicines. The four chief subdivisions had been chosen to be included into the questionnaires in order to carry through the aims of the survey as stated earlier. Table 3.1 Description of each portion in the questionnairePartDescriptionADemographic informationsBacillusSmoking positionCDegree of nicotine dependanceCalciferolKnowledge index The respondents Ã¢â¬Ë cognition on several countries will be measuring utilizing multiple pick inquiries or near complete inquiries. Mostly of the inquiries in the questionnaire will be done utilizing multiple pick inquiries or stopping point ended inquiry in order to do respondents easier to reply the inquiries in the questionnaire. In the cognition indices, respondents have to take merely one correct reply for each statement. In the portion B and C of the questionnaire, merely current tobacco users have to reply it whereas in the portion A and D, all respondents are required to carry through the reply.3.3 Sample of surveyA convenient sampling will be conducted where it involved any of the pupils in UiTM Shah Alam and Puncak Alam Campus. The sample size intended for this survey is about 600 samples where 300 samples are from Shah Alam Campus and another 300 samples from Puncak Alam Campus.3.4 StandardsFurther divided into following group:3.4.1 Inclusion standards1. Students who ar e a current tobacco users. 2. Students who are a former or an ex- tobacco users. 3. Students who are make non smoke at all or none tobacco users.3.4.2 Exclusion standards1. Students who have household members or friends who are working in a nicotine replacing drug companies or baccy companies.3.5 Data CollectionData will be collected from two selected UiTM campuses which are UiTM Shah Alam at Shah Alam, Selangor and UiTM Puncak Alam at Kuala Selangor, Selangor. The questionnaires will be distributed every bit in both campuses. All the respondents will be asked to finish the questionnaire and engagement will be voluntary. All respondents will be given a sufficient clip to reply every inquiry in the questionnaire. A pilot survey among friends will be done prior to questionnaire distribution.3.6 Data processing and statistical analysisIn the portion C of the questionnaire, the degree of current tobacco users Ã¢â¬Ë dependence to nicotine will be define by hiting the responses given to each inquiry based on the marking that had been assigned in the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. In the portion D of the questionnaire, the cognition index for a each capable country will be define by hiting the responses given to ea ch statement on that topic as either correct or incorrect or make non cognize and so ciphering the amount of right responses for all inquiries assigned to the index. Descriptive statistics, for cases such as simple per centum and agencies, will be used to mensurate the cognition of respondents on smoking wellness hazards and smoking surcease aids available in Malaysia. The independent t-test and analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) will be executing to find the difference in cognition tonss between different groups. A additive arrested development analyses will be utilizing to find the relationship among demographic, smoking position and degree of dependence with the different cognition indices. All statistical trials will be done utilizing SPSS package version 17.0. Microsoft Office that will be used is Microsoft Excel.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
A2 Art Essay: Why was the work of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein immediately popular in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s? Roy Lichtenstein rapidly became popular in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s with his very original pop art pieces which he based many on comic strips, advertisements or newspapers. These tended to be the main inspiration for his work; this is because the subjects would tend to be exceedingly emotional and melodramatic. He became an idol to the American culture by adding in comic book characters which were very popular at the time.One of his most renowned pieces that he made was almost certainly Ã¢â¬ËWHAAAM! Ã¢â¬â¢ which is based on an image from Ã¢â¬ËAll American Men of WarÃ¢â¬â¢ published by DC comics in 1962. This is a wonderful piece that reflects strongly what life was like around that period of time, this made it extremely popular amongst the people. The painting shows a rocket being fired from an aircraft into an enemy plane, with a large red-and-yellow explosion on the plane b eing hit. The cartoon is made a great deal more dramatic by the use of the onomatopoeic lettering Ã¢â¬Å"Whaam! and the boxed caption on the top left of the painting reading, Ã¢â¬Å"I pressed the fire controlÃ¢â¬ ¦ and ahead of me rockets blazed through the skyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ like the painting Ã¢â¬Å"WHAAAM! Ã¢â¬ many of Roy lichtensteins works were hard-edged with commercial techniques and he used flat and new colours which were used to portray culturally-popular Ã¢â¬ËpopÃ¢â¬â¢ images. Another one of my favourite pieces is Ã¢â¬ËGirl with ribbonÃ¢â¬â¢ I find it portrays a strong sense of emotion to viewers, like many of his other pieces it only tells a snippet of the story and the rest is left to the viewers imagination.This is the aspect that I love the most, each of his pictures are overly dramatic with sometimes a speech bubble to give you an idea of the story behind the painting, it really makes the viewer think about the piece and let their imagination run wild and decipher meanings for themselves. This is what I am planning on achieving through my coursework, I have studied various works of Roy LichtensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s and through taking photos, have designed my own pieces that also tell a story. Andy Warhol is another New York artist that developed in this genre that used very similar techniques to Roy Lichtenstein.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Communications in the movies essays Communication in the Movies: Rainman Everyday, everywhere we go, in everything we do, we see, hear, and use communication. The movies is no exception. In watching the movie Rainman I observed many different types of communication both effective and ineffective. The main character of the movie, Charlie, begins the movie as a very stubborn and selfish man who does not use particularly good communication skills when talking to others: he often does not make a good climate which leads to negative spirals, he does not use empathy, and he easily becomes defensive. In the course of the movie he meets his brother, Ray, who suffers from autism which makes it difficult for him to communicate with others. The obstacle of Rays difficulty in communication at first frustrates Charlie, but he soon learns that there is nothing he can do but learn to communicate in a way that Charlie will be able to understand. In the movie Rainman, Charlie starts off using a very selfish, ineffective communication style, but learns to participate, observe, and adapt to the situation and becomes a much better communicator. The movie begins with Charlie Babbitt (played by Tom Cruise) who receives a phone call saying that his estranged father has passed away. He goes with his girlfriend, Susanna, to the funeral and is shocked to find out that his father only left him some rosebushes and an old car while someone else received all of his fathers fortune. That someone else turns out to be Ray Babbitt (played by Dustin Hoffman), the brother Charlie never knew he had. Ray lives in a mental hospital due to his severe autism and has no concept for the money he has inherited. Charlie decides to take matters into his own hands and kidnap Ray in hopes of getting the money. The two brothers end up driving across the country together and on the way Charlie learns of Rays amazing ability to count and remember numbers. Charlie decides to take Ray to Las Vega...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Character Development How to Write Great Characters [Worksheet] Character Development: How to Write Great Characters [Worksheet] The character development in your story is vital for its selling.After all, people love and rave about books not always because of the story itselfBut because of the characters they fell in love with.In fact, itÃ¢â¬â¢s specifically because someone fell in love with the characters and care so much about them and their journey that theyre willing to follow them through the entirety of it.That is why you need to put an emphasis on the character development in the book youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing- or preparing to write.Here is your 12 step guide for good character development:Create a background for your characterGive your character strengths and weaknessesCreate nervous ticks for your characterAvoid making a perfect characterGive your character realistic motivesGive them a unique featureDevelop a wide variety of character personalitiesCreate an impact of your characters pastMake secondary characters foil typesGive each character a unique voiceCreate a diverse character castAvoid character s tereotypesStick with us through this post and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn exactly how to accomplish character development in a way that will make readers think about your characters as if they were real people.Once you nail all of these, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be writing strong characters in no time.Get Your Character Development SheetSometimes its worth it to have a character development sheet to keep track of your characters. Not only will you be able to keep track, but you can zoom out and better see if youre creating two character archetypes who are too much alike.Are you ready to get started right now? Download your free character development sheet to keep track of each character you write. Download your FREE character development worksheet!Talk to an Expert to Discuss Your Character DevelopmentDid you know we have our experts on hand to help you with your books- for free!ItÃ¢â¬â¢s true.Just book a call for a FREE 20-minute coaching call and our experts can help you gain clarity on what youre struggling with and how you can work through it to finish your book!BOOK A FREE COACHING CALL!Talk with one of our experts by clicking the button below and scheduling your free coaching call.Click Here to Book a CallWhat is Character Development?Character development is the process and execution of creating a fully rounded, complex, and lifelike character within your fictional writing with the purpose of making readers invested in them and their life or journey.Think of character development like the paper of your book. Without it, you simply dont have a book at all- you just have a mess of ink smeared between two cover.But before we get into the extensive details, IÃ¢â¬â¢m go ing to cover what constitutes a well-developed character as well as the different types of character development you may consider.What is a Well Developed Character?A well-developed character needs a full backstory, personality traits reflective of it, realistic actions and emotions, along with being highly relatable to the average reader and as complex as a real person.If you cant imagine your characters as a real-life person, theyre not quite complex enough to be well developed. The key with character development is crafting your characters to feel as if theyre people you know who just live far away.Get comfortable with thinking of them as real and you almost always will have a well-developed character.Types of Character DevelopmentWhen it comes to learning how to write characters and write them well you have to understand which type of character youre dealing with.These are the different types of characters to write:ProtagonistAntagonistSecondaryStaticFoilStockDynamic/RoundDonÃ ¢â¬â¢t be alarmed if you think this is a lot of different types of characters. After all, we all have people in our real lives who would fill these character Ã¢â¬Å"typesÃ¢â¬ and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why itÃ¢â¬â¢s important for your book to include them.Without them, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t go through with character development and expect a captivating cast.But letÃ¢â¬â¢s help you understand what each type of character brings to the story.With this information, you can better understand which character development to focus on with each of the fictional people you create.12 Actionable Character Development TipsNow that you know which type of character youÃ¢â¬â¢re focusing on here when writing your book, letÃ¢â¬â¢s dive deeper into the character development methods you can use and exercises to help you get it right. #1 Create a background for each characterOur realities are shaped by where weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been, where we are, and where we want to go.That being said, the one with the most influence on our lives is where weÃ¢â¬â¢ve been our past.The same is likely true for your character. Based on what their life was like prior to the start of your novel, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll have different interests, quirks, fears, and more.Your job is to fill out what their life has looked like up until the beginning of your book. Character Development ExerciseFill out a character development sheet so you can understand your characters as full-fleshed people instead of just two-dimensional beings you created. Cover these main ideas when crafting your characterÃ¢â¬â¢s background: Their childhood (good, bad, poverty-stricken, spoiled, etc.) Their parents (divorced, never married, one missing, both missing) Their friendships Their hobbies and interests as a kid versus now Their motivations for feeling the way they do about any given situation Their personality type and how it affects their actions These are some basic elements you should understand about your character in order to shape their personality, opinions, and actions that appropriately fit their background.#2 Know your charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths and weaknessesOne of the biggest means of influence over your characters will be their strengths or weaknesses.We, as humans, constantly face our strengths and weaknesses on a daily basis, even in the smallest of forms.What your characters are good at and what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not great at will affect how they perceive different events, what actions they choose to take, and can affect their overall character arc (which weÃ¢â¬â¢ll touch on later).If your characterÃ¢â¬â¢s strength is talking to strangers and gaining their trust, this might be an asset for them throughout their journey. However, if that is your characterÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re forced to do so, it can cause conflict for them.These strengths and weaknesses will shape your character arc and the plot as a whole, so know them well before writing. Character Development ExerciseCre ate a list of 3 strengths and 3 weaknesses for your characters. Make sure these play into the plot in order to cause conflict and gain sympathy from readers who can relate.#3 Create nervous ticks or habitsIf youÃ¢â¬â¢ve paid attention to humans for long enough, youÃ¢â¬â¢re aware that we all have certain habits we donÃ¢â¬â¢t even realize weÃ¢â¬â¢re doing when weÃ¢â¬â¢re nervous.Me? I pick at the skin around my nails. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a pain (literally) and I never notice IÃ¢â¬â¢m doing it until later.This can be a key characteristic that will make your characters feel more real and help make them more relatable to your readers, which will make them want to give you those 5-star reviews. Character Development ExerciseMake a small list for each of your characters. Write down 2 odd habits for each of them and decide which is their go-to (the one they do without even thinking about it) and which is made worse through nerves or anxiety.#4 No character can be perfectIt can be real ly hard to write your favorite fictional person as having flaws. After all, we want people to love them, right?But a Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ character is not lovable theyÃ¢â¬â¢re hateable because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not realistic.The more you try to make your character Ã¢â¬Å"flawless,Ã¢â¬ the less readers can relate and therefore, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll like them less. You have to build flaws into your character just like we all have drawbacks in real like. Character Development ExerciseList 3 major flaws your character has that can actually become problems within your plot. Think about any bad habits they have, situations they dislike, or even personality traits that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t seen as Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ in order to craft these flaws in a realistic fashion.#5 All characters need realistic motivesNo matter which character they or what they want in your story, they need to have a real and valid reason for feeling this way.Take He Who Shall Not Be Named from Harry Potter for example.Voldemor t (woops!) wants to kill Harry. That much we should all know even if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve never read or seen the movies. But if he was just trying to kill Harry Potter for the sake of murdering a child, it wouldntÃ¢â¬â¢ make sense.Yes, heÃ¢â¬â¢s evil, but he also has a valid reason for wanting him dead, right?He has to kill Harry Potter because heÃ¢â¬â¢s the only person who was able to defeat him before and because the prophecy says so.If your characters no matter how minor they are donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a motive that makes sense, readers will be pulled out of the story and end up questioning whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening, and not in a good way.This is largely how plot holes arise so in order to avoid them, stick to this character development method. Character Development ExerciseWhen coming up with your antagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s motives, list at least 2 ways in which theyÃ¢â¬â¢re valid. For Voldemort, it would be the fact that Harry can kill him and that he wants to rule the wizarding world. Your bad character has to have at least 2 strong reasons for opposing your protagonist and they should make sense given their history.#6 Give each character a unique featureThis is particularly for those of you writing Game of Thrones-esque novels with a large number of characters, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s important for others as well.When writing a book, you want your readers to easily visualize and differentiate the cast. You want each character to stand out as individuals.A perfect way to do this is to give each person an identifiable feature.For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s use Harry Potter again because you probably know what the main characters look like.Harry has glasses. Hermione has buck teeth (up until she has them shortened a bit too much and this is only in the books for those of you about to argue), and Ron has flaming red hair.These are very distinct features that can help you picture them as wildly different characters.Now, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to give each and every character som e crazy hair color or style, but try not to have your entire cast look the same.If you have a main character with brown wavy hair, have the next with blonde curly hair, etc.Keep in mind that siblings can certainly look similar! Character Development ExerciseCreate a spreadsheet or other document that lists all your characters and document their features. If you have two characters who spend a lot of time together in your book and you see they look similar, alter their appearance until theyÃ¢â¬â¢re differentiable.Take my own spreadsheet for my work in progress below as an example.#7 Develop a wide variety of personality typesMeaning, donÃ¢â¬â¢t create all of your characters to be the Ã¢â¬Å"dark and sarcasticÃ¢â¬ type or the Ã¢â¬Å"tough guyÃ¢â¬ type.You have to have a wide variety of personalities just like in the real world.You can even back up their personality with real-life psychology. As an example, I have two characters who both have a tragic background.However, th ey donÃ¢â¬â¢t process that trauma in the same way. One character takes on a very withdrawn approach while the other hides his pain with humor. This gives them very different personalities despite having similar histories. Character Development ExerciseReference your characterÃ¢â¬â¢s backstories and do a little research into possible coping mechanisms and how that can affect their personality. Develop it from there in order to have realistic personalities that differ.#8 Match your characterÃ¢â¬â¢s history with the effects of itThis is when some research will come into play, which should be required anyway. Looking into some psychological effects of trauma can help you accurately and realistically dive into character development.Now, not all characters go through trauma, but there are other big life events that can shape how they behave.If you have a character whose parents were very strict growing up, they may be a bit of a rebel and lack the decision making abilities others h ave mostly because they never learned how since their parents made those choices for them. Character Development ExerciseSince you know your characterÃ¢â¬â¢s backstory, do a little research into how those specific struggles or realities can shape a personÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche in order to accurately and realistically craft their behavior.#9 Make secondary characters foil typesThis is largely to help with personality contract within your novel. Most of the time, this will happen naturally if youÃ¢â¬â¢re giving each character a unique personality but itÃ¢â¬â¢s great to keep in mind anyway.If you have secondary characters (characters who get a decent amount of page time but are not main characters), craft their personality types to show the opposite of the main charactersÃ¢â¬â¢.Why? Because you want to firstly create more diversity and secondly, create some non-plot-specific conflict. Character Development ExercisePinpoint your secondary characters and development them in a way tha t makes them clash or oppose your main characters in certain ways. Think about what could annoy your main character the most and give your secondary characters some of those habits or personality traits.#10 Give each character a distinct voiceWe all speak differently and that means your characters should too. Depending on where theyÃ¢â¬â¢re from, they could have different accents, slang, and even phrases they tend to use regularly.Think of a friend of yours for a minute. What are some specific phrases they use a lot?ItÃ¢â¬â¢s likely you were able to think of something in just a few seconds because itÃ¢â¬â¢s so unique to them and something they say a lot.Your characters should be developed in the same way.If you write two characters from very different areas of the world and they have the same style of speaking, your audience will be pulled out of the story because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not realistic. Their voices have to be consistent and not the same. Character Development ExerciseThe se tips can ensure your characters speak differently: Choose a slang word each character likes to use Use different wording for the same meaning like Ã¢â¬Å"apologiesÃ¢â¬ versus Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorryÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"my badÃ¢â¬ Use unique sentence structures to give each character a unique speaking rhythm Make sure your more educated characters speak like it and your less educated use simpler words and phrases Create phrases similar to Ã¢â¬Å"knee-high to a grasshopperÃ¢â¬ with unique meanings for your charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ specific regions Read their dialogue out loud in the voice you image they have and make changes if necessary The point of giving your characters unique voices is to ensure your readers imagine them as real people instead of two-dimensional beings living in paper.#11 Create a diverse cast in every wayIÃ¢â¬â¢ll be honest, there is a very real problem in literature when it comes to diversity.You can debate this all you want, but coming from someone who reads many books, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a very real issue that only you and other writers going forward can correct.Your book should be just as diverse as the real world.If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have characters with varying skin, hair, or eye colors along with varying body types, disabilities, and even mental illnesses, your characters are not diverse enough.You do not have to write a book about these things in order for you to include them in your novel.For example, one of my main characters has high levels of anxiety. His storyline does not revolve around this mental illness, but it is there, seen, and can affect his plot. Character Development ExerciseLook through your characters and their appearances as well as their personalities. If there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t clear diversity amongst them, create it. You want to make sure you are allowing diverse readers to feel included, heard, and represented.#12 Avoid stereotypes This is really a Ã¢â¬Å"do not doÃ¢â¬ tip versus a Ã¢â¬Å"must doÃ¢â¬ tip . The reason for this is because so many writers feel as though they need a Ã¢â¬Å"side characterÃ¢â¬ (or even a main character) but is too lazy to do the real work.Which means they create a stereotype of a specific type of person that can oftentimes be harmful without the author even knowing.A great way to ensure you never have offensive stereotyped characters is to use a sensitivity reader or make sure you have a diverse group of beta readers who can speak on behalf of the characters youÃ¢â¬â¢ve developed. What is a Character Arc?A character arc is used to describe the inner and even outer journey, which can be physical, mental, emotional, or otherwise that a character experiences throughout the duration of the story or plot.You thought you were done learning about character development, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t you?YouÃ¢â¬â¢re not! In addition to crafting well-rounded characters, you also have to think about including arcs for them.How to Create a Character ArcAt the very least, your protagonist, or main character, requires an arc for their storyline and journey to be captivating and satisfying for readers.As an example, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to use Harry Potter from that series simply because itÃ¢â¬â¢s widely known and his character arc even within the first novel is distinct.Harry Potter starts the novel as an 11-year-old kid suffering from emotionally abusive relatives who care for him due to his parents passing away.But by the end of the movie, Harry has discovered heÃ¢â¬â¢s a wizard, learned of his prominence in the wizarding world, and even taken on Voldemort himself (well, sort of).This character arc is distinct in that his mental and emotional journey from start to finish is wildly different. Harry Potter is not the same at the end as he was in the beginning and this remains true throughout each book in the series.When your character comes out at the end of the book as a transformed person in certain senses, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a character arc.Above is an examp le of what a character arc looks like on paper and how you can utilize plot elements in order to further your characterÃ¢â¬â¢s development.Character development questionsIf youre looking for a way to further develop your characters in order to create lifelike and realistic personalities, we have a way to help.Here are 50 character development questions to ask:What is their full name?Why did their parents choose that name?What are their parents like?Do they have siblings?What are their siblings like?Were they bullied by their siblings?What order are they in their family (first born, middle, etc.)?What do they look like (full appearance)?Do they have any quirks or nervous habits?What do they do when they get mad?What do they do when theyre happy?Do they have close friends?What are their friends like?Whats their worst habit?Whats their best habit?Whats their biggest weakness?Whats their biggest strength?What is something they want to improve upon?Whats something they excel in?Did the y go to school or an equivalent?What were they like in school?Do they like to learn?Are they a rebel?Are they an obliger (people-pleaser)?Are they internally motivated?Do they look to others for help in times of stress?What is their stress response?Do they think logically or emotionally to make decisions?Are they able to make decisions clearly when emotional?What are their beliefs on religion?Do they have a strong moral compass?What do they value most in life (money, happiness, etc.?)What is something that would trigger irrational behavior?Are they introverted or extroverted?Are they a troublemaker or do they play by the rules?Whats something that fulfills them?Do they know their lifes purpose?Whos someone causing emotional struggles in their life?Who do they go to when theyre upset?What type of weather do they enjoy most?What are their sleeping habits like?What are their eating habits like?Whats something they could change about their world if they could?Are they someone who speaks up for themselves?Are they a passive person?What are they like at their very worst?What are they like at their very best?What do they envision their life to be 10 years from now?What do they want for their life when theyre old and gray?What does the perfect life look like in their eyes?Your Next Steps But Only if YouÃ¢â¬â¢re a Serious WriterItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to get serious about your book. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re here, it means you want to learn how to write your book to the best of your ability.ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly what we can help with.We put together this FREE training for you to understand what it takes to write and publish a book.Make sure to watch this because you can create incredible characters all you want, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll never see the light of day without publishing.