Thursday, September 3, 2020

About World War II Japanese Soldier Lt. Hiroo Onoda

About World War II Japanese Soldier Lt. Hiroo Onoda In 1944, Lt. Hiroo Onoda was sent by the Japanese armed force to the remote Philippine island of Lubang. His strategic to direct guerrilla fighting during World War II. Tragically, he was never authoritatively told the war had finished; so for a long time, Onoda kept on living in the wilderness, prepared for when his nation would again require his administrations and data. Eating coconuts and bananas and deftly avoiding looking through gatherings he accepted were adversary scouts, Onoda stowed away in the wilderness until he at long last rose up out of the dull openings of the island on March 19, 1972. Called to Duty Hiroo Onoda was 20 years of age when he was called up to join the military. At that point, he was a long way from home working at a part of the Tajima Yoko exchanging organization Hankow (presently Wuhan), China. Subsequent to passing his physical, Onoda quit his place of employment and came back to his home in Wakayama, Japan in August of 1942 to get into top state of being. In the Japanese armed force, Onoda was prepared as an official and was then picked to be prepared at an Imperial Army insight school. At this school, Onoda was instructed how to accumulate knowledge and how to lead guerrilla fighting. In the Philippines On December 17, 1944, Lt. Hiroo Onoda left for the Philippines to join the Sugi Brigade (the Eighth Division fromHirosaki). Here, Onoda was provided orders by Major Yoshimi Taniguchi and Major Takahashi. Onoda was requested to lead the Lubang Garrison in guerrilla fighting. As Onoda and his confidants were preparing to leave on their different missions, they made a trip to answer to the division leader. The division administrator requested: You are completely taboo to bite the dust by your own hand. It might take three years, it might take five, yet whatever occurs, very much return for you. Up to that point, inasmuch as you have one trooper, you are to keep on driving him. You may need to live on coconuts. On the off chance that that is the situation, live on coconuts! By no means are you [to] surrender your life intentionally. 1 Onoda paid attention to these words more actually and than the division authority would ever have implied them. On the Island of Lubang Once on the island of Lubang, Onoda should explode the wharf at the hold and wreck the Lubang landing strip. Shockingly, the battalion authorities, who were stressed over different issues, chose not to help Onoda on his crucial soon the island was invaded by the Allies. The staying Japanese fighters, Onoda included, withdrew into the internal locales of the island and split up into gatherings. As these gatherings dwindled in size after a few assaults, the rest of the fighters split into cells of three and four individuals. There were four individuals in Onodas cell: Corporal Shoichi Shimada (age 30), Private Kinshichi Kozuka (age 24), Private Yuichi Akatsu (age 22), and Lt. Hiroo Onoda (age 23). They lived near one another, with just a couple of provisions: the garments they were wearing, a modest quantity of rice, and each had a firearm with restricted ammo. Apportioning the rice was troublesome and caused battles, yet they enhanced it with coconuts and bananas. Now and then, they had the option to murder a regular folks bovine for food. The cells would set aside their vitality and use guerrilla strategies to battle in encounters. Different cells were caught or were murdered while Onodas kept on battling from the inside. The War Is Over...Come Out Onoda first observed a pamphlet that guaranteed the war was over in October 1945. At the point when another cell had executed a cow, they found a flyer deserted by the islanders which read: The war finished on August 15. Descend from the mountains!2 But as they sat in the wilderness, the handout just didnt appear to bode well, for another cell had quite recently been terminated upon a couple of days back. In the event that the war were finished, for what reason would they despite everything be enduring an onslaught? No, they chose, the pamphlet must be a shrewd ploy by the Allied advocates. Once more, the outside world attempted to contact the survivors living on the island by dropping pamphlets out of a Boeing B-17 close to the furthest limit of 1945. Imprinted on these handouts was the acquiescence request from General Yamashita of the Fourteenth Area Army. Having just covered up on the island for a year and with the main confirmation of the finish of the war being this handout, Onoda and the others investigated each letter and each word on this bit of paper. One sentence specifically appeared to be dubious, it said that the individuals who gave up would get clean aid and be pulled to Japan. Once more, they accepted this must be an Allied deception. Many pamphlets was dropped. Papers were left. Photos and letters from family members were dropped. Companions and family members stood up over amplifiers. There was continually something dubious, so they never accepted that the war had truly finished. Throughout the Years After a seemingly endless amount of time after year, the four men clustered together in the downpour, scanned for food, and here and there assaulted townspeople. They terminated on the locals since, We considered individuals dressed as islanders to be foe troops in mask or adversary spies. The evidence that they were was that at whatever point we terminated on one of them, a hunt party showed up in a matter of seconds afterward. It had become a pattern of incredulity. Secluded from the remainder of the world, everybody seemed, by all accounts, to be the foe. In 1949, Akatsu needed to give up. He didnt tell any of the others; he just left. In September 1949 he effectively escaped from the others and following a half year all alone in the wilderness, Akatsu gave up. To Onodas cell, this appeared to be a security break and they turned out to be significantly increasingly cautious about their position. In June 1953, Shimada was injured during a clash. In spite of the fact that his leg twisted gradually improved (with no prescriptions or wraps), he got melancholy. On May 7, 1954, Shimada was murdered in an encounter on the sea shore at Gontin. For about 20 years after Shimads passing, Kozuka and Onoda kept on living in the wilderness together, anticipating when they would again be required by the Japanese Army. Per the division leaders guidelines, they trusted it was their business to stay behind adversary lines, survey and assemble insight to have the option to prepare Japanese soldiers in guerrilla fighting so as to recover the Philippine islands. Giving up finally In October 1972, at 51 years old and following 27 years of stowing away, Kozuka was executed during a conflict with a Filipino watch. In spite of the fact that Onoda had been authoritatively proclaimed dead in December 1959, Kozukas body demonstrated the probability that Onoda was all the while living. Search parties were conveyed to discover Onoda, however none succeeded. Onoda was currently all alone. Recalling the division authorities request, he was unable to execute himself yet he not, at this point had a solitary warrior to order. Onoda kept on stowing away. In 1974, a school dropout named Norio Suzuki chose to head out to the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, Nepal, and maybe a couple of different nations on his way. He told his companions that he was going to look for Lt. Onoda, a panda, and the Abominable Snowman. Where such huge numbers of others had fizzled, Suzuki succeeded. He discovered Lt. Onoda and attempted to persuade him that the war was finished. Onoda clarified that he would possibly give up if his authority requested him to do as such. Suzuki went back to Japan and discovered Onodas previous leader, Major Taniguchi, who had become a book retailer. On March 9, 1974, Suzuki and Taniguchi met Onoda at a pre-designated spot and Major Taniguchi read the requests that expressed all battle movement was to be stopped. Onoda was stunned and, from the start, doubting. It required some investment for the news to soak in. We truly lost the war! How might they have been so messy? Out of nowhere everything went dark. A tempest seethed inside me. I felt like an idiot for having been so tense and careful in transit here. More regrettable than that, what had I up to for every one of these years? Step by step the tempest died down, and just because I truly comprehended: my thirty years as a guerrilla warrior for the Japanese armed force were unexpectedly wrapped up. This was the end. I pulled back the jolt on my rifle and emptied the shots. . . . I dialed down the pack that I generally conveyed with me and laid the weapon on it. Would I truly have no more use for this rifle I had cleaned and thought about like an infant every one of these years? Or on the other hand Kozukas rifle, which I had covered up in a hole in the stones? Had the war truly finished thirty years back? On the off chance that it had, what had Shimada and Kozuka kicked the bucket for? On the off chance that what was going on was valid, wouldnt it have been exceptional on the off chance that I had kicked the bucket with them? During the 30 years that Onoda had stay covered up on Lubang island, he and his men had slaughtered at any rate 30 Filipinos and had injured roughly 100 others. After officially giving up to Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, Marcos exonerated Onoda for his violations while sequestered from everything. When Onoda arrived at Japan, he was hailed a saint. Life in Japan was very different than when he had left it in 1944. Onoda purchased a farm and moved to Brazil yet in 1984 he and his new spouse moved back to Japan and established a nature camp for kids. In May 1996, Onoda came back to the Philippines to see by and by the island on which he had covered up for a long time. On Thursday, January 16, 2014, Hiroo Onoda kicked the bucket at age 91. Assets and Further Reading Hiroo Onoda,No Surrender: My Thirty-Year War (New York: Kodansha International Ltd., 1974) 44.Onoda,No Surrender;75. 3. Onoda,No Surrender94. 4. Onoda,No Surrender7. 5. Onoda,No Surrender14-15.Hiroo Worship. Time 25 March 1974: 42-43.Old Soldiers Never Die. Newsweek 25 March 1974: 51-52.Onoda, Hiroo. No Surrender: My Thirty-Year War. Trans. Charles S. Terry. New York: Kodansha International Ltd., 1974.Where It Is Still 1945. Newsweek 6 Nov. 1972: 58.

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Prozac and Paxil †Marketing Research Paper

Prozac and Paxil †Marketing Research Paper Free Online Research Papers Prozac and Paxil Marketing Research Paper â€Å"Depression is a mental condition that changes how you think and feel. It influences your social conduct and feeling of physical well-being.† (Psychology Information Online). Wretchedness isn’t an ordinary piece of life; it is connected to changes in your cerebrum brought about by an irregularity of specific synthetics. Misery influences youngsters, grown-ups and even kids and it is evaluated that â€Å"more than 10 million Americans experience the ill effects of this issue annually† (Marketing Antidepressants: Prozac and Paxil, 2). Realizing that downturn is currently viewed as a condition which needs prompt consideration, pharmaceutical organizations have created professionally prescribed medications called particular serotonin re-take-up inhibitors (SSRIs) to battle this issue. The significant inquiries I might want to address here would it say it is; is evident that these conditions have been existing for quite a while, how was it being treated previously? Has this condition been overstated by creators of medications, for example, Prozac and Paxil? Prozac: Prozac which was intended to address synthetic uneven characters brought about by an absence of serotonin, joined the market in 1988 and by 1992 deals had arrived at 10 million every year. The accomplishment of this medication is somewhat because of the successful showcasing and publicizing methodologies. Salespersons were made mindful of current mental practices and advertised the medication to significant specialists. In endeavors to build deals, the medication was later advertised to general experts and essential doctors. The executives further expanded deals by teaching specialists on the best way to analyze sadness and to dispense with generalizations about this issue. Notices about the marvels of the medication were ran during hours when it was accepted increasingly discouraged people, explicitly ladies, saw TV. The press contributed enormously to the drug’s accomplishment by featuring it as a marvel medication and wonder pill. A book distributed by Kramer revealed that â€Å"the medicate not just rewarded sorrow it likewise changed personalities† (Marketing Antidepressants: Prozac and Paxil, 5). Albeit intended to nipple gloom, Prozac is being utilized to treat eating, smoking, bulimia and other comparative issue. Paxil: Paxil was planned as an option in contrast to Prozac anyway in 1999, it got FDA endorsement to be utilized as a treatment for Social uneasiness issue (SAD). â€Å"This is an illness which is accepted to influence roughly 3.7% of the American grown-up populace and side effects incorporate uneasiness, alarm assaults and complete evasion of situations†. For Prozac’s advertisers, this was a for all intents and purposes new market and advertisers realized that deals relied upon their capacity to make open familiarity with the confusion. Like Prozac, advertisers utilized methodologies, for example, â€Å"educating correspondents, shoppers and doctors about the illness and its treatments† (Marketing Antidepressants: Prozac and Paxil, 7). These open mindfulness battles caused a great many notices all through different mediums and highlighted patients who professed to be experiencing this issue. The board centered a direct-to-buyer publicizing effort which featured the tu rmoil rather than the pill. One out of 10 American ladies takes an energizer medication, for example, Prozac, Paxil or Zoloft, and the utilization of such medications by all grown-ups has about significantly increased in the most recent decade, In 2002, more than one of every three specialists office visits by ladies included a solution for an upper, (Antidepressant Use By U.S. Grown-ups Soars). The interest for such medications are so high one needs to think about how compelling right? Are there any reactions? In the event that so how genuine right? So as to respond to these inquiries we should take a gander at the upsides and downsides of utilizing these antidepressants: Qualities of Prozac and Paxil Hard to overdose on the medication and was in this way sheltered in the possession of self-destructive patients Simple to direct and presented less genuine reactions than existing brands Positive picture: the board had the option to situate Prozac nearby across the country endeavors to reduce expenses. Positive informal exchange and criticism about the medications Backing from significant media houses They were viewed as marvel drugs for rewarding different issue Right market division, powerful promoting systems and open mindfulness battles. Paxil was the main prescription to win U.S. endorsement for SAD. The creators of Paxil converged with GSK to turn into the world’s biggest pharmaceutical organization Shortcomings of Prozac and Paxil SSRIs didn’t work for everybody, indeed just about 60% of patients reacted to Prozac Patients experienced issues in enduring reactions Medications had not been tried on kids during clinical preliminaries Chances of Prozac and Paxil Publicizing rules were increasingly adaptable and organizations could exploit the capacity to air communicate commercials. Dangers of Prozac and Paxil Records and books were composed session the advantages and risks of Prozac Rivalry †there were existing rivals in the market, for example, Zoloft, and Celexa Pundits were shocked about direct-to-customer publicizing and fought that promoting data was misdirecting. Issues: In spite of SSRIs various advantages to patients, to be specific Prozac and Paxil, these medications were likewise confronted with a few issues including: With Prozac’s patent going to lapse, Eli Lilly (Prozacs producer) and Glaxo Smith Kline (Paxils maker) expected to conclude how to react to the presentation of nonexclusive Prozac into the market Worries that Americans were abusing and overmedicating themselves with these items. An expected measure of 28 million Americans consumed these medications, while it was evaluated that lone 10 million were experiencing misery (Marketing Antidepressants: Prozac and Paxil 9) Worries that these medications were not being utilized appropriately A lot of these medications were endorsed to patients younger than 18 What are the good and moral concerns related with utilizing SSRIs. Examination In January, Leuchter distributed an investigation in the American Journal of Psychiatry, in which he followed a portion of the cerebrum changes related with medications, for example, Prozac and Effexor. He looked at the mind changes in patients on fake treatments and was astounded to locate that huge numbers of them had changes in similar pieces of the cerebrum that are thought to control significant features of state of mind. In research accomplished for a preliminary to decide the adequacy of SSRIs in comparism to home grown cures, discoveries uncovered that a natural cure St. Johns Wort completely restored 24 percent of the discouraged individuals who got it, Zoloft relieved 25 percent however the fake treatment completely relieved 32 percent. (Against Depression, a Sugar Pill Is Hard to Beat). What does this examination demonstrate? Would it be able to be conceivable that downturn is more a perspective than a confusion? We realize that one of the significant concerns is Americans abusing and overmedicating themselves with these SSRIs. Numerous reports have related the execution of genuine wrongdoings with the utilization of antidepressants. On account of Andrea Yates, who experienced post birth anxiety, she was treated with Wellbutrin, Effexor and Haldol years before she slaughtered her five kids. As indicated by Bruce E. Levine, Ph.D., creator of Commonsense Rebellion†, â€Å"the blend of medications that Yates allegedly took, especially in the event that she was taking them simultaneously, may well have been a solution for a terrible maniacal break.† (Depression is a decision) Despite the fact that SSRIs have not been tried on kids, it is continually being utilized to treat discouragement among youngsters. A stunning disclosure was made when an investigation was led among kids with gloom who were known to have carried out genuine criminal acts. â€Å"Fifteen-year-old Shawn Cooper terminated on understudies and secondary school staff in Notus, Idaho in April 1999, He was taking a SSRI. Thirteen-year-old Chris Fetters of Iowa was on Prozac when she slaughtered her preferred auntie. Kip Kinkel, a 15-year-old, first shot his folks, at that point executed two and injured 22 individual understudies at Thurston High School in Oregon. He too was taking Prozac. In September 1999, while on Prozac, Buford ONeal Furrow, Jr. terminated 70 rounds at the North Valley Jewish Community Center in Los Angeles injuring 5 individuals. Jeff Weise portion of Prozac had quite recently been expanded to 60 mg every day when he terminated on a school in Red lake, Minnesota. The rep ort additionally expressed that since 1998, eight of the thirteen school shooters were on mental drugs.† (Why Kids Kill? Prozac And Alternatives) With this kind of data this inquiry is legitimate; did the medications cause the viciousness? In the event that so for what reason are they being recommended and sold. In spite of these examination discoveries, â€Å"In 2003, Canadians burned through fifteen billion dollars on doctor prescribed medications, an expansion of 14.5% more than 2002, while the utilization of such medications by Americans has about significantly increased since the last decade.† (Psychology Information Online) I am left to ponder, what is the explanation behind this developing increment in antidepressants? Is it suitable or economical? Why aren’t non-sedate choices that address the enthusiastic pain of patients, for example, work out, backing, psychotherapy, and healthful enhancements, being bolstered, financed and organized by specialists and the administration? In an examination investigating the impacts of oxygen consuming activity and Zoloft on sorrow, Blumenthal et al, found that four months of treatment practice was equal to 1 portion of drug in decreasing significant melancholy among more seasoned individuals. (impacts of activity and preparing on Older Patients) Subsequent to stepping through the self exam for social Anxiety Disorder, (reference section 1), the outcomes demonstrated that I was not experiencing this malady, anyway I know whether I’d stepped through this examination 10 years prior, the outcomes would be the inverse. Iâ

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Apple iphone analysis Essay Example for Free

Apple iphone examination Essay The telephone begins ringing, were going to get it and when we contact it, the ringer volume cleverly goes down! Indeed! Today an organization like HTC could make this sort of cellphone. Since the dispatch of the IBM Simon in 1993, cell phone innovation has arrived at levels that as of not long ago had just been envisioned about. Highlights, for example, remote sharing, HD video recording and portable web are currently typical and today’s normal cell phone has more handling power than PCs utilized by NASA to land a man on the moon. Everywhere throughout the world, the cell phone experience is being shared by an ever increasing number of individuals consistently. The intermingling of versatile communication, Internet administrations, and individualized computing gadgets is bringing about the development of a â€Å"mobile Internet† (Ishii 2004; Funk 2001). The key gadgets for getting to the versatile Internet - as of now named â€Å"smartphones† are incredible new processing gadgets offering customary remote voice administration just as local programming applications and, maybe above all, the capacity to associate with and run a heap of Internet-based administrations including email, geo-area, spilling video, and person to person communication, while giving a decent client experience. The business openings introduced by this new classification have pulled in a significant number of the major worldwide data and correspondences innovation (ICT) firms, including firms from the portable communication, PC, Internet, and individual computerized aide (PDA) ventures, into a complex new scene of rivalry. For huge numbers of these organizations, catching a bit of the all out worth made by the cell phone industry is accepted to be a key to future development and benefits. The intrigue is reasonable. Today more than 1. 3 billion cell phone handsets are being sold yearly, and in 2010 cell phones made up practically 20% of that all out (Gartner, 2010; Ahonen, 2010). Deals of cell phones are expanding practically 100% every year, and all out worldwide deals volume is relied upon to outperform that of PCs by 2012 (Gartner, 2010). By falling the limits between beforehand unmistakable gadgets, cell phones are subsuming deals of cell phones altogether and, progressively, netbook and note pad PCs. To entangle the scene, the cell phone isn't the main gadget in question, tablets and digital book perusers are developing as key segments of the versatile universe. Over all gadgets, all out versatile incomes including promoting, memberships, handsets, applications, etc are gauge to outperform $1 trillion by 2014 (Gartner, 2010). Given the rate at which cell phone are entering the market and segment costs are declining by 2015 there will be, in any event, 2 billion savvy cell phones being used all inclusive. As indicated by the guidelines we should make a report with a hierarchical field-tested strategy structure to delineate current circumstances of Apple Inc. /iPhone division, and afterward dissect quality and shortcoming of the organization. I will begin with SWOT and PESTEL examination. At that point we survey the best power on iPhone creation with Porters 5 powers. At that point we will break down Apple iPhone Growth and piece of the pie top to bottom with BCG lattice. I utilize for the most part 2012 figures to attract a state-of-the-art picture from Apple iPhone creation and market circumstance. Ansoff grid will be the following investigation which encourages us comprehend iPhone showcase infiltration and how it arrived at enhancement. Apple is a major organization with a few items and administrations that furnish alongside items. Every item has its own market. It is conceivable to utilize numerous variables and join related measurements for breaking down an organization with various item. However, for this situation we are required to investigate cell phone industry as it were. I utilize ongoing figures (2010 to 2013) for investigations. For brands examinations I think about Apple, Samsung, HTC, ZTE, and RIM (BlackBerry). For set objectives and making the report’s goals we ought to indicate what we need. It is required to show quality and shortcomings of cell phone area. As I would see it shortcomings are increasingly significant. They could rise in any regions, for example, creation lines, mechanical angles or selling procedure and cause large disappointments. Conspicuous quality and shortcomings will be recognized and afterward will be coordinated with political, social, innovative and natural variables. Industry power will be evaluated utilizing Porter’s 5 powers examination. This investigation groups solid and feeble focuses inside 5 powers: Threat of new participants and substitute items, dealing intensity of providers and clients, and portion contention. These powers examine small scale condition. For full scale factors we could investigate PESTEL examination. For piece of the pie and development investigation Growth-share framework (BCG lattice) will be utilized. This strategy shows an item quality utilizing its business incomes. iPhone position will be resolved among 4 BCG matrix’s classifications: Star, Cash cow, Dog and Question mark. Apple iPhone as another item in correlation with existing items inside another or existing business sector will be examined utilizing Ansoff lattice. Result shows that iPhone as another item in 2007 was sublime. 270,000 units were sold around then. Extending the idea of the advertising blend is significant for organizations that need to adjust to new markets. For instance, simply putting an item in stores isn't sufficient. A maker with retail outlets additionally needs to consider physical condition and design. The store ought to pass on the correct look and feel, driving shoppers to develop positive relationship with the brand. Items inside the store ought to be shown coherently and reliably, in the areas clients would check first on the off chance that they were searching for explicit things. Due to every one of these elements a total expanded showcasing blend (7Ps) will be introduced. Worldwide Smartphone pattern The worldwide cell phone advertise has been encountering hazardous development throughout the previous quite a while. Rivalry has stayed furious all through, however the numbers dont lie. Two innovation titans rule the market, taking an incredible 92% of piece of the pie for themselves. These two organizations are Google and Apple. Information with respect to cell phone deals during Q4 2012 has come out during the most recent a few days, proving how much individuals everywhere throughout the globe need to get their hands on a cell phone. After a brief glance at the data, it becomes obvious that the very good quality telephone showcase is a one of the most extraordinary oligopolies of the 21st century. With the arrival of Blackberry 10 only two days away, financial specialists are beginning to inquire as to whether there truly is any room left for Research In Motions most recent contribution. Cell phones are taking off the racks. As per Strategy Analytics, worldwide cell phone shipments have expanded from 490. 5 million during 2011 to 700. 1 million during 2012, which is generally 30% development year-over-year. In the event that anything, there is space for disturbance inside the business: individuals will continue purchasing more telephones. As the market develops, be that as it may, so does Androids piece of the overall industry: Android went from having 48. 7% of the market in 2011 to an incredible 70. 1% in Q4 2012. Apples iOS has additionally developed marginally, catching 22% of the piece of the pie before the finish of a similar period. What amount is there left for every other person? As of Q4 2012, a pitiful 7. 9%. The achievement of the iPhone, Pre, and Blackberry shows the quality of shopper interest for an astute, multifunctional gadget. The intrigue of the cell phone will make noteworthy new income streams for transporters and designers, who ought to endeavor to make new help packages that work off this portable stage with joined video, voice, and information applications. Future Smartphone deals figure Smartphone deals blew past the quantity of PCs sold a year ago, and theyll be almost twice PC deals this year, examiner Alex Cocotas of BI Intelligence predicts. Additional surprising, cell phone deals will surpass 1. 5 billion units for every year by 2016. This looks at to around 350 million PCs and 1. 7 billion versatile handsets sold all around a year ago. Cell phone deals will be driven by two fundamental elements, BI Intelligence says: Replacement of about 5 billion dumbphones with cell phones (cell phones right now make up just 10% of handsets around the world) Price decays. The normal cost of a cell phone will drop from about $315 a year ago to $200 throughout the following quite a while This will clearly hugy affect the portable Internet economy, which is as of now detonating from the development of cell phone infiltration in the previous hardly any years. Some different features from the report: Cell phone unit deals will develop at almost a 30% compound yearly development rate throughout the following five years Smartphones will speak to around 66% of all cell phone buys by 2016, Smartphones will be a $320 billion market by 2016. These figures are a lot higher than those of other industry investigators, who for the most part expect cell phone unit deals to hit around 1 billion per year by 2015. Mac Mission and Vision explanation Apple structures Macs, the best PCs on the planet, alongside OS X, iLife, iWork and expert programming. Macintosh drives the advanced music transformation with its iPods and iTunes online store. Mac has reexamined the cell phone with its progressive iPhone and App Store, and is characterizing the fate of portable media and processing gadgets with iPad. Apple vision explanation: Apple is focused on bringing the best individualized computing experience to understudies, instructors, inventive experts and purchasers around the globe through its imaginative equipment, programming and Internet contributions. Apple Background On December 2012 The Economist announced that â€Å"Apple turned into the most significant organization ever (in ostensible terms), beating the record that Microsoft hit in December 1999. Apple’s share cost crested at $705 before entering bear an area and falling by 25%, to $510; toward the beginning of 2012 it had been $410. † Apple Incorporated is an American partnership that plans and fabricates com

The Musical Culture of the Country of Burundi Essay Example for Free

The Musical Culture of the Country of Burundi Essay Each country has its own way of life and customs which has been polished by the individuals for a long time or hundreds of years. A large portion of the social acts of a country are typically passed down to the people to come. Despite the fact that they are adjusted to fit the present age, a few pieces of the way of life stay unblemished and don't transform; they are similar practices done previously. The equivalent is valid with the social acts of Burundi. In the midst of the different wars and struggle occurring in the nation of Burundi, its way of life is still maintained by those living in the country zones. Their customs are still to a great extent celebrated and rehearsed by the individuals. As the years progressed, the world has considered Burundi to be a spot loaded up with savagery and struggle. There are times when the news originating from Burundi just includes brutality and ill-advised activities of the radicals against the administration and the other way around. Also, mass killings are known to have influenced numerous areas of the nation, in this manner reducing the odds for recreational exercises, instruction, and other social practices to be maintained. Different asylum camps and uprooted individuals have likewise been bothered by such clashes. Outside Influences to the Burundian Culture Historical records of Burundi uncover that the nation was colonized by different European countries. Ruler Mwezi IV, the decision head during the nineteenth century, expected that his realm will be caught by one of the clashing clans in Burundi, the Tutsis. Due the King’s dread, he tied down the help of Germany to secure his realm, in a flash transforming Burundi into a German settlement. Following a couple of years, the German colonizers passed the duty to another European state: Belgium (Institute for Security Studies [ISS], 2005). Thus, these nations had the option to impact and etch their own standards, conventions, and convictions on Burundians which were consolidated into the social acts of Burundi. Music as a Large Part of the Burundian Culture Burundians are individuals who appreciate expressions and music. Music has been a colossal piece of their lives which could be seen in different kinds of conventional social affairs and the tunes sung in these get-togethers. One of these is family social occasions where â€Å"imvyino† melodies are performed. Imviyino tunes were known to have short hold back which has a solid beat. Such melodies frequently join unconstrained stanzas which are sung along with the solid beats of the music. Then again, â€Å"imdirimbo† tune is a progressively unhappy and genuine kind of music which is sung by a little gathering of people or an independent artist. â€Å"Kwishongora† is another kind of tune from the customary music of Burundi that is sung distinctly by men. It is a musical tune which is coordinated with trills and yells. For the females, there is additionally a specific sort of tune made for them, and it is known as the â€Å"bilito† in which is a nostalgic type of music (Stanford, 2007), One of the most grounded attributes of Burundi music is the â€Å"whispered singing. † This is communicated by the entertainer in a low or delicate pitch, for it requires the melodic backup to be heard obviously (Stanford, 2007). Burundian Musical Instruments Most of the customary melodies of Burundi are played with explicit instruments, for example, â€Å"inanga,† â€Å"idono,† â€Å"ikihusehama,† and â€Å"ikimbe. † The inanga is an instrument made out of six (6) to eight (8) strings which are loosened up in a wooden curved bowl. The idono is known to be the fiddle which is made distinctly out of a solitary string. The ikihusehama is an instrument which is like a clarinet woodwind. In conclusion, the ikimbe is the linguaphone rendition of the Burundians. Be that as it may, the most significant instrument utilized by the Burundians is the drums which is considered as an image of status and force (Stanford, 2007). Drums are known to be the most critical instruments in the nation of Burundi. In the antiquated occasions, drums were viewed as a plain instrument as well as a hallowed item which was just utilized for formal occasions. The beat is one of the most basic components of the Burundian drums. Certain rhythms are applied relying upon the sort of occasion being held, from burial services to enthronement. The beat of the drums is additionally the primary sign that broadcasts the beginning of the agrarian season just as the spread of the Soughum seeds which is a significant rural pleasantry for the nation (Heavenly Planet, 2008). The drums are huge to the occasions, however they are additionally profoundly associated with nature. This solid relationship of drums and nature is obvious in parts of the drum, as their names are identified with ripeness: â€Å"Icahi: the skin (the skin wherein the mother shakes her child); Amabere: the pegs (the bosoms); Urugori: the strap extending the skin (crown of parenthood); inda: the chamber (the stomach); umukondo: the foot of the drum (the umbilical cord)† (Heavenly Planet, 2008, n. p. ) Royal Drummers of Burundi The Royal Drummers of Burundi is the most recognized entertainers in Burundi. The gathering is made out of twenty (20) people who act in the most significant Burundian services. In like manner, because of the noteworthiness of the gathering, they additionally act in different festivals, for example, burial services, births, crowning liturgies, and christenings inside the nation. This esteemed drum bunch is known to likewise act in different pieces of the world. What's more, the Royal Drummers of Burundi is perceived as one of the most acclaimed percussion bunches on the planet (Smith, 2009). The gathering is known to be a multigenerational band; accordingly, children are instructed by their dads the craftsmanship and the hugeness of execution and playing drums. More often than not, various drummers switch submits in request for them to have a brief rest and make a steady progression of music that lone quits during the finish of the entire program. Notwithstanding drumming, the greater part of the musicians are additionally artists. The gathering plays out the moves during the opening of the projects (Smith, 2009). Africatravelling. net (2000) praises the exhibitions of the Royal Drummers of Burundi: â€Å"The Drummers of Burundi had the most spellbinding nearness of the considerable number of acts at the celebration Every second, every howl from the players fit into the daze effect of the drummers† (n. p. ). The Royal Drummers of Burundi are known to have explicit drums that they use to make a particular sound of the drums. One of the kinds of drums that they use is the â€Å"Ngoma† drums which are â€Å"hollowed out from the storage compartment of a specific tree called D’umuvugangoma (Corda Africana)† (Heavenly Planet, 2008, n. p. ). Reflection on the Music of Burundi As I have looked into in different web assets, I discovered that the Burundi melodic culture isn't broadly known to the world. There are just not many assets accessible for the individuals who are keen on their customary music. Most books and articles are about the subjects of human rights infringement, massacres, and war in Burundi. Subsequently, this recommends the extravagance of the Burundian culture is frequently overlooked. With the examination that I have done, I understood that a solitary instrument could be a wellspring of intensity and status. Moreover, such instruments could likewise be a signifier of different occasions and components of nature. Because of the contentions and threatening vibe in the territory of Burundi, the worldwide network doesn't give critical consideration to the rich social part of this nation. Notwithstanding, with the gathering of Royal Drummers of Burundi, one can say that the rich culture of this African country lives regardless all things considered. References Africatravelling. net (2000). Bujumbura-Culture. Recovered February 11, 2009 from http://www. africatravelling. net/burundi/bujumbura/bujumbura_culture. htm. Brilliant Planet. (2008). â€Å"Music That Inspires. † Retrieved February 11, 2009 from http://www. heavenlyplanet. com/highlighted/dob. html. Establishment for Security Studies. (2005). Political System and History. Recovered February 11 2009 from http://www. iss. co. za/af/profiles/burundi/legislative issues. html. Smith, S. E. (2009). Who are the Royal Drummers of Burundi?. Insightful Geek. Recovered February 11, 2009 from http://www. wisegeek. com/who-are-the-imperial drummers-of-burundi. htm. Stanford, E. (2007). Culture of Burundi. Nations and Their Cultures. Recovered February 11, 2009 from http://www. everyculture. com/Bo-Co/Burundi. html.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Cola Wars Continue Coke and Pepsi in 2010 Free Essays

Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010 A case conversation note January 17, 2012 1. Truly, why has the soda pop industry been so beneficial? Truly, the delicate carbonated soda pop (CSD) industry has been esteemed at $74 billion in the United States. So as to comprehend the reasons why the business has been massively gainful regardless of the ‘Cola Wars’, an assessment of the CSD business with Porter’s five powers examination will be directed. We will compose a custom paper test on Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010 or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now As market pioneers, the examination will be fixated on both Coke and Pepsi (from now on â€Å"CP†). Danger of new rivalry: Barriers to passage in the CSD business are very high and there are different elements to help this. Initially, both CP spend immense measures of financing of commercial. As indicated by Exhibit 8, in 2009 alone, both CP burned through $234 million and $145 million separately in publicizing use. Along these lines, while the genuine introductory capital speculation expected to fire up a CSD organization is generally financial, the sum required by new contestants to persistently push their image and addition perceivability is incredibly high. Because of these extraordinary degrees of use on advertising and brand mindfulness, the two cola organizations have gathered exceedingly elevated levels of brand value and buyer devotion around the world. All things considered, even with adequate assets for fire up and resulting promoting, new participants are probably not going to influence continuing shopper tastes. In light of the sheer size of both CSD organizations, both CP have prior agreements with their bottlers, in this manner restricting their bottlers’ capacity to deliver comparable items with rival brands. Also, using broad solidification using acquisitions and re-diversifying of their bottlers, both CP have made it basically unthinkable for new contestants to discover bottlers for the dispersion of their beverages. If the new contestants choose to assemble their own packaging plants (which is cited to possibly cost many millions for the situation), they would just end up confronting inconceivable repaired start costs notwithstanding the strange sum they need to spend on showcasing. Regardless of whether new participants by one way or another figured out how to create and advertise their beverages, the incumbents’ (CP) sweeping systems would make it inconceivable for them to make sure about any type of appropriation channels. Rack spaces in grocery stores were commanded by CP in light of the fact that markets were given a cut of the benefit created from the deals of their items. These slices gather to a lot of benefit age for the retailers. Also, consolidated, CP possessed 89% of national pouring rights. The way that the officeholders had restrictiveness in the two markets, wellspring outlets, and different types of retail channels would make it practically unthinkable for new contestants to appropriate their items. Dealing intensity of shoppers: Historically, the two fundamental clients of soda pop makers were grocery stores (29. 1% of conveyance) and wellspring outlets (23. 1%). As a rule, retail outlets have been fruitless in declaring a lot of haggling control over the business. To a limited extent because of the degree of discontinuity just as their dependence on CP as drivers of client traffic. Longstanding agreements and obtaining of wellspring outlets likewise serve to debilitate consumer’s bartering power. Dealing intensity of providers: Major providers for CP gave wares as jars, sugar, bottles, and so forth. These items were profoundly homogenous and could be subbed without any problem. The aluminum can industry, specifically, relied upon firms like CP on the grounds that they were larger part purchasers. Because of such reliance, providers declared almost no dealing control over the business. Force of serious contention: Even however CP are basically a duopoly in the CSD business, rivalry between the two have generally focused on showcasing endeavors like publicizing, new items, and advancements as opposed to valuing. Their competition, verifiably, was likewise in a market with predictable development. All things considered, benefits were not antagonistically influenced despite the fact that their contention was exceptionally archived and broadcasted. Risk of substitutes: There are various elective substitutes for soda pops and these incorporate lager, filtered water, faucet water, juices, tea, espresso, wine, powdered beverages, milk, and refined spirits. However, as indicated by Exhibit 1, Americans, verifiably, reliably drank more CSDs than some other refreshment. All things considered, the risk of substitutes influencing CP’s gainfulness was restricted. To additionally invalidate the impacts of substitutes, they likewise created and advanced their own scope of substitutes to diminish potential misfortunes. 2. Analyze the conomics of the concentrate business with that of the packaging industry. For what reason is the benefit so extraordinary? Utilizing information from Exhibit 4, we can see that the working pay of a concentrate maker is 32% of its net deals while that of a bottler is just 8%. The explanation the packaging business acquires essentially lesser than its concentrate partner can be credited to two primary com ponents †altogether greater expense of merchandise sold (COGS) and the presence of selling and conveyance cost. We see that the COGS of a bottler are at 58%, a lot higher than the concentrate producer’s 22%. The explanation behind this distinction is prevalently because of Master Bottler Contracts set up to consider a specific degree of â€Å"price fixing† on the concentrate producers’ part. Furthermore, as referenced already, crude materials for concentrate makers are bounteous and homogenous; consequently COGS for them will be altogether lower. Additionally, the bottler is responsible for selling and conveyance, and thus brings about a 18% selling and conveyance cost while there is no such cost on the concentrate producer’s part. These reasons clarify why the concentrate business has a more beneficial plan of action than the packaging industry. . How has the developing notoriety of non-carbonated sodas affected the business? Non-carbonated sodas have been picking up ubiquity in the previous decade, expanding from 13% in 2000 to 17% in 2009. This developing prominence has brought about the age of both nearby and worldwide techniques by CSD firms reluctant to miss ou t on the growing business sector. So as to benefit from the chance, both CP significantly extended their lines of refreshments to incorporate games drinks like Gatorade and tea-based beverages like Lipton. Greater part of beverages presented during this time were non-CSDs. Other than making new items, Coke likewise forcefully picked up piece of the overall industry through acquisitions and stretching out their wellspring administrations to incorporate espresso and tea. The non-CSD openings comprehensively were likewise forcefully sought after by organizations like CP. To increase confined aptitude, be that as it may, the soda pop organizations didn't simply think to bring new items into outside business sectors. Rather, they depended on getting the separate market driving, non-CSD organizations in the nations they decided to put resources into. The organizations of decision were generally significant natural product juice makers. Past takeovers, CP additionally took a stab at development and confinement of refreshments. These for the most part came as combination of neighborhood drinks (e. g. mixed green tea with Sprite) or usage of neighborhood fixings in the creation of new beverages (e. g. refreshments with Chinese herbs). The development and quickly developing prevalence of the non-CSD has gathered a lot of counter from significant players in the CSD business. So as to get a lot of the pie, they have defined development techniques both locally and all inclusive which appear to base on obtaining. Step by step instructions to refer to Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in 2010, Essays

Sunday, August 2, 2020

Fun with Numbers Top 10 Comics of June 2016

Fun with Numbers Top 10 Comics of June 2016 Every month we’ve been tracking the most-subscribed books at Fantom Comics in Washington, DC, and today we’ll look at June,  the strangest month yet for our list. There are a few heavy hitters that didnt see releases this month:  Mirror is seeing a short delay before its next issue arrives in July, and  Saga and  Monstress are both on hiatus between story arcs. Remember these are only subscription numbers, not total sales, so it represents our regular customers rather than casual walk-ins. It means #1 issues are under-represented, as people tend to pick up the first issue off the rack before they subscribe to it. Also remember this list is measured by number of subscribers, not revenue. WITHOUT FURTHER ADO: 1.  Black Panther #3 by Ta-Nehisi Coates and Brian Stelfreeze Ta-Nehisi Coates series  has been a phenomenon, with more than twice as many pulls as any other book on this list, and a bunch more subscribers than it even had when issue #2 dropped.  The second printings of the first two issues have been huge sellers as well, and were waiting for the third printing of issue #1 as I type this. Issue #3 had a two-week delay, but fans are still clamoring for ithopefully thats not a recurring problem. Typically, issue #4 is when subscription numbers level off for our existing subscribers, because anyone whos not reading by that point is probably waiting for the collected edition. We can always counteract that by getting new people to sign up as subscribers, though, and Black Panther has done a great job of bringing in folks who wouldve never signed up for a comic book subscription before. 2.  Paper Girls #6 by Brian K. Vaughan and Cliff Chiang Paper Girls returns from hiatus for its second arc! In the absence of  Saga single issues, BKVs other new series picks up the slack. And much like  Saga,  Paper Girls has done a great job of getting trade-waiters who picked up the vol. 1 collection last month to jump onto the single issues for  the new arcone day, Marvel and DC will catch up to Image in their brilliant trade-flipper game. This series is moving in a very different direction than it was initially marketed, with a time jump from 1988 to 2016 for the new issue! At this point, Brian K. Vaughan has built up enough trust among his readers that I imagine everyone will stick around for the ride. 3.  Ms. Marvel #8 by G. Willow Wilson, Takeshi Miyazawa, and Adrian Alphona Unlike  Black Panther, which is so much in a league of its own that Marvel isnt making it tie into their Civil War II summer event at all,  Ms. Marvel is drawn into the big crossover like everyone else. The publisher believes  Ms. Marvel readers are invested enough at this point that they can draw them into the drama of the greater comic universe. This issue is also the first in a while to feature BOTH  of the regular series artists in the same issue! Last year when Marvel forced  Ms. Marvel to reboot itself with Secret Wars, it confused many of the more casual readers, but luckily the series gets to continue regularly while Civil War II is going on. It hits the right balance of drawing readers in to the event if they want to learn more, but letting others just continue on  Ms. Marvel alone if theyd prefer. 4.  The Wicked + the Divine #20 by Kieron Gillen and Jamie McKelvie The fourth story arc chugs along. Gillen and McKelvie recently announced the first  Wicked + Divine one-shot that will run between arcs, focusing on an earlier pantheon of godswe cant wait to see how it turns out! For another month in a row, both  Ms. Marvel and  WicDiv hit their series highs in terms of subscription numbers at our store; perhaps the rising tide of  Black Panther is floating all boats, and some of the people who just came in for Ta-Nehisi Coates are sticking around for some of the industrys other heavy hitters. 5.  Bitch Planet #8 by Kelly Sue DeConnick and Valentine de Landro ITS BACK. FINALLY. FOUR MONTHS LATER. After multiple delays,  Bitch Planet hits stands again at last, and fans are still eatin it up. Were at a point where readers dont really expect this book to arrive in a timely fashion anymore, and theyre okay with that. Years down the line when everyones reading this in the collected editions anyway, no ones going to remember how long it took for each issue to come out. Bitch Planet has kept itself fairly trade-waiter-proof with its amazing backmatter.  The essays at the end of each issue are what make the series go from good to great for many readers, so theyre willing to wait out the colossal delays. Issue #9 is currently listed for an August 10 release, so we already know were gonna wait two months for the next one, although issue #10 after that is apparently dropping only a month later on September 7. Well see if Team Bitch Planet sticks to that schedule 6.  Saga  vol. 6 by Brian K. Vaughan and Fiona Staples We cant overstate how huge  Saga is. It tops our lists when the single issues come out, and its the only book whose  TRADE PAPERBACKS make our monthly top ten articles. These lists are ranked by unit numbers, not dollar saleswhile most of the books in this article  are $3.99,  Saga vol. 6 manages to take our Number 6 spot at a whopping $14.99 price point; if we organized this list by revenue, itd easily dethrone  Black Panther. Trade paperbacks always sell well, and Image books in particular rely on their trade sales over single issue sales, but most readers will just pick them up off the shelf at the store rather than subscribe to themthe fact that so many people subscribe to  Saga volumes is testament to what a force it is in the industry. And of course, the book features an ad at the end for the upcoming issue #37, continuing  Sagas tradition of flipping trade-waiters to single issue buyers better than any series ever published. 7.  Batman #1 by Tom King and David Finch The first DC book to crack our top ten list in almost a year of tracking these numbers! DCs Rebirth reboot has been a runaway commercial success, and of course their flagship franchise Batman rises to the top. We underestimated how many people would come in for these booksalmost every Rebirth book so far has sold out on day one. DC underestimated themselves, too, as we have to wait on second printings for every single book to get any more of them. Tom Kings Batman has some big shoes to fill after Scott Snyder and Greg Capullos character-defining five-year run that may  go down as one of the greatest Batman runs of all time, and unquestionably the greatest highlight of the New 52 era. King did great work on  Grayson and  The Vision, but this is the big leagues. 8.  Batman: Rebirth one-shot by Tom King, Scott Snyder, and Mikel Janín Most of DCs new series have Rebirth one-shots before their main stories get started, so this came out two weeks before  Batman  #1 as a bridge between the New 52 era and the Rebirth era, and a passing of the torch from Scott Snyder to Tom King. The biggest hurdle facing DCs new books is the double-shipping schedule. As Ive written about in regards to  Star Wars in these articles before, any time you force a comic to come out more than once a month, youre sacrificing quality for quantity. DCs new books will try to get around this by featuring two alternating main artists on each seriesthis might work for Greg Ruckas  Wonder Woman, which will alternate between two different storylines with each issue, but for  Batman, it could be jarring to see one story change art style with every  chapter. King brought along his fantastic  Grayson collaborator Mikel Janín for half the issues, but the other half will be drawn by the serviceable David Finch (fresh off his critically-panned  Wonder Woman run), so well see where this goes. 9.  Island #8, edited by Brandon Graham and Emma Ríos; stories by Xulia Vicente, Michael DeForge, Ben Sears, and Simon Roy Island falls much lower on this list than it usually does, but not because its losing readersits just keeping a steady pace while a bunch of other new stuff gains readers. Youll notice some other mainstays like  Star Wars dont appear on the list at all this month, and theyve got the same (good) problem: keeping steady numbers, while we gain a bunch of new readers for other new series. Issue #8 features the first mainstream work by indie comics darling Michael DeForge, as well as the finale of Simon Roys fantastic space cannibal story Habitat, which has gotta be one of our all-time favorite  Island comics  so far. Were coming up on the one-year anniversary of  Island #1, so look for a retrospective on the anthology magazine here at Panels in a couple weeks! 10.  Poe Dameron #3 by Charles Soule and Phil Noto The Marvel era of  Star Wars comics has hit a wonderful milestone:  Poe Dameron is the first book to pass the main  Star Wars book in readers! Its no surprise that the popularity of  The Force Awakens has pushed the popular hotshot pilot into the drivers seat; when  Rogue One hits theaters at the end of the year, expect a plethora of even more new titles to reach new heights for  Star Wars comics. Again, the strength of Marvels recent  Star Wars books is the surprising restraint theyve shown in not flooding the market.  Poe Dameron is given space to breathe and find its audience because there arent fifteen other  Star Wars books being shoved down readers throats at the same time. Its the midway point of 2016, so as promised, heres our graph of the biggest books of the year so far. Keep in mind were not disclosing hard numbers because *~proprietary information and business secrets~*, but here ya go! Everything else becomes a blur once  Black Panther joins the fray; you can see how much bigger it is than everything else we sell. The weird little handoff between  Saga and  Black Panther in April is misleading, as  Saga has just been on hiatus since then; I dont think all those readers jumped ship to read BP. Itll be interesting to see how much farther behind it is when it finally comes back in August! I hadnt made the connection before that  Paper Girls and  Bitch Planet both left and came back in the exact same monthsalthough this was an intentional hiatus between arcs for  Paper Girls, while it was a delay in the middle of the story for  Bitch Planet. Youll see  Saga is on this chart in blue for the single issues, and in deep purple for the trade paperback. Itd be unfair to count these as one series, since the majority of readers only read one format or the other, rather than both.  Sagas the only comic popular enough to have this problem! Ms. Marvel may be the most consistent book in this time frame, a nice combination of being a super-popular book while still consistently coming out every single month.  The Wicked + the Divine, which has almost exactly the same number of readers, should be coming out consistently almost every month now until the end of its run, so that might be the most interesting long-term matchup on this chart. You can see a bunch of new stuff pop up right at the end of the chart in June; this midsummer paradigm shift led by DC Rebirth will be fun to watch in the second half of the year. How long will the honeymoon period last? Will they keep up the double-shipping schedule on all their biggest books? As I mentioned earlier, you can see some of the slight downward trends for a few of these books changing course and moving back up after Aprilthe arrival of  Black Panther might be helping all our books by bringing new subscribers into the fold who read other books as well! See ya next month. Sign up to The Stack to receive  Book Riot Comic's best posts, picked for you. Thank you for signing up! Keep an eye on your inbox.

Sunday, June 21, 2020

Why Is the SAT So Long

The SAT is the longest test I’ve ever taken. Not a single midterm or final in either high school or college took so much time. Well, to be fair, I’ve had tests that took multiple sittings. But that’s different. The only time in my life that I’ve sat down for four hours to take a test was the SAT. You’d think they could make it a little shorter, right? The SAT isn’t the longest standardized test Most tests like the SAT (including the ACT) are really long. The tests people take to get into grad school are mostly 3-4 hours, too, so you might find yourself doing this again if you decide to get another degree. In fact, up until 2006, the MCAT (the test to get into med school) ran at 8 hours long. Eight hours. Can you imagine going through that? Yeah, there was a break, but still†¦. They’ve brought it down to about 5 hours nowadays (how kind of them), but the point is that the SAT actually isn’t weird. The SAT covers a lot of information The College Board is trying to test your ability to do†¦ what exactly? Oh, right—everything. It’s supposed to test how well you’re going to perform in college, no matter your future major. That’s not an easy thing to do. So the readings have to include all different topics, the math has to require all sorts of different skills, and the writing sections have to test you on grammar, style, and how well you can form an argument—pretty much all of what makes up â€Å"good† writing. If you’ve been preparing for the test, you know that there’s a whole lot to cover on the SAT. And that takes time. More questions means more accurate scores The SAT is trying to get at an accurate score to show your strengths and weaknesses, so it needs to have a lot of questions on each topic. If I give you a question about a mathematical function, for example, and you get it right, does that mean you’re capable of teaching a course on functions? Or even that you fully understand the concept? On the same note, if you get it wrong, does that mean you’d make a mistake on any function question? The more times they quiz you on the same types of problems, the more likely they’ll get an accurate reflection of your skills. It’s like any science experiment; the more data, the more reliable the conclusion. The College Board isn’t trying to be evil So this isn’t just a sneaky way of testing how much stamina you have, even though it does end up doing that. It’s actually kind of necessary. So even though they’re going to change the SAT in the upcoming years, I’d put down a fat stack of cash that says it’ll still be over three hours. Hey, it might even be longer still.